Khushal Khan Khattak
passed away about three hundred and fifty years ago (1613–1688). He
was a genius, a linguist, a man of foresight, a man of faith in
Al-Mighty God, a man of peace and unity, a man of justice and
equality, a man of love and humanity, and a man of wisdom and
He was a multidimensional person known to the world as moralist, a
wise chieftain, a great religious scholar, a thinker and an ideal
leader of the Pushtoons. He was equipped with countless qualities as
wisdom, honour, bravery, kindness, generosity, and self-respect.
Moreover, he was a skillful man and wanted his individual to be
skillful in various fields of life and be the owner of these
qualities. He wants to build the moral character of his individual
through the teachings of Islam. He himself was a practical and a
devoted Muslim; therefore,
he wanted that all individuals should develop love with Islamic
This versatile genius desired such education system, which should
inculcate Qur’anic morals and high human values in social lives of
students and of common human beings. He wanted to lay the foundation
of a sound, healthy, and a moral society so that a welfare state may
come into being.
He was anxious to bring positive change in the behaviour of the
people through his teachings, the real aim and objective of
education. A meaningful and purposeful education should meet this
aim. He emphasized that individuals should live a productive life.
This is something which has been desired in our national education
policies over the years.
According to Imam Ghazali the aim of education is character building
and personality development. He advocates the need of moral
education both in theory and practice. This is the dominant theme of
Khushal’s philosophy and he struggled to realize the same objective
in his life. His educational philosophy also matches with holisitic
/ wholistic type of education, which is concerned with educating the
whole person i.e. body, mind, soul, and spirit so that the
individual may actualize his / her full potentials. Khushal is the
staunch advocate of the same type of education as well.
In the following chapters his approach toward education is discussed
in detail. We will be well advised to examine & follow his
recommendations in the reconstruction of our system of education.
The Life of Khushal Khan Khattak: Chapter I attempt is made to
present in brief Khushal’s early life & education, his origin,
family background, his conflict with Mughal emperor and his
imprisonment, his release from prison and life after imprisonment,
His educational thoughts and his contributions to Pushto literature,
Khushal and Iqbal's Educational Philosophy, Chapter II is focusing
on various definitions of educations. Before this discussion aims
and objectives of various educational commissions and policies have
also been given. Types of education, i.e. formal, informal,
wholistic / holistic education have been discussed. Then Khushal's
and Iqbal's philosophies and approaches with the instances of their
poetry and prose have been given.
Khushal's Concept of Khudi: In Chapter III we have discussed
Khushal’s concept of Khudi. Khudi is also one of the central and
foundational terms in Iqbal's poetry. A comparative account of these
two great thinkers especially on the concept of Khudi is offered in
this chapter. We have examined as to how khushal Khan has taken this
word? What does he mean by it? And why he teaches it to his
individual? Such queries are addressed in this chapter.
Khushal's Concept of Sovereignty: Chapter IV this chapter is devoted
to Khushal's concept of sovereignty. Here we have mainly focused on
Khushal’s famous work: Dastar Nama. This book was written in the
prison when Khushal was a prison in the fort of Rathanboor. In this
chapter Al-Ghazali's, Maulana Maududi’s and Qur'anic concept of
sovereignty are also discussed. Here one can see as to what type of
education Khushal recommends for his ideal sovereign / leader /
Khushal's Concept of Wisdom: In Chapter V wisdom, in the sense of
intelligence and knowledge has been defined. Then it wisdom per se
is also examined. Khushal's concept of wisdom almost covers all it’s
meaning In this chapter we shall see as to who qualifies as Dana,
Aqalmand, Hukhiyar in Khushal’s view and whom he considers stupid, (Ahmaq,
Nadan, Kam Aql, and Bay Waqoof).
Khushal as interpreter of Islam: Chapter VI deals with Khushal’s
scholastic approach towards Islam and his attachment with Islamic
injunctions. He educates and recommends his individuals to know thy
[their] Lord. For this purpose he stresses that first one should
know oneself. If one succeeds in it, surely he will know his Lord.
Its impact will ultimately be fell on the society .He desires a
welfare Islamic society, in which each one helps and takes care of
others. In order to realize this purpose, he teaches the youth
higher human values in the light of Qur’an and Sunnah of the Prophet
Khushal’s Moral Education: In Chapter VII Khushal’s moral education
is discussed. Khushal is keen to build the morals of his individuals
according to the teachings of the Qur’an and Sunnah. Aims and
objectives of secular education and the objectives of Islamic
education are also examined in brief in the chapter.
Khushal as a preacher of peace and Proponent of perpetual struggle:
In Chapter VIII we have tried to examine Khushal’s Philosophy of War
and Peace. A general impression about Khushal Khan Khattak is that
he was a warrior. No doubt, he was, but for what purpose he fought
these wars? This chapter deals with such kinds of causes. Our
contention is that he was a great preacher of Peace. He restored to
war as a last resort & its purpose was the establishment of peace.
His concept of peace was developed through the deep study of the
Qur’an and Sunnah. He suggests different kinds of punishments for
the violent groups and praises each step which should be taken for
the purpose of peace. In the last portion the impact of wars and
violence on the society has been discussed.
Khushal’s Concept of Ideal Man: Chapter IX is devoted to Khushal’s
concept of an Ideal Man. This is the last chapter of our study. It
deals with all those attributes that Khushal wants to see in his
ideal man. He wants that individuals should inculcate Godly
attributes in themselves. He admires such attributes, which should
present a picture of Tukhalliqu-bi-akhlaqillah. To him strenuous
efforts, die-hard, strife for the establishment of peace and justice
loving care & compassion for others are the ingredients for ideal
man. These qualities he found in Hawk and Eagle, this is why he
stresses his ideal man to be a Baz and Shabaz, thus its qualities of
honour and self-respect will infuse in you and you will become