Muhammad, Niaz (2009) Khushal Khan Khattak’s Educational Philosophy. PhD thesis, Qurtuba University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar.
Khushal Khan Khattak passed away about three hundred and fifty years ago (1613–1688). He was a genius, a linguist, a man of foresight, a man of faith in Al-Mighty God, a man of peace and unity, a man of justice and equality, a man of love and humanity, and a man of wisdom and knowledge. He was a multidimensional person known to the world as moralist, a wise chieftain, a great religious scholar, a thinker and an ideal leader of the Pushtoons. He was equipped with countless qualities as wisdom, honour, bravery, kindness, generosity, and self-respect. Moreover, he was a skillful man and wanted his individual to be skillful in various fields of life and be the owner of these qualities. He wants to build the moral character of his individual through the teachings of Islam. He himself was a practical and a devoted Muslim; therefore, he wanted that all individuals should develop love with Islamic injunctions. This versatile genius desired such education system, which should inculcate Qur’anic morals and high human values in social lives of students and of common human beings. He wanted to lay the foundation of a sound, healthy, and a moral society so that a welfare state may come into being. He was anxious to bring positive change in the behaviour of the people through his teachings, the real aim and objective of education. A meaningful and purposeful education should meet this aim. He emphasized that individuals should live a productive life. This is something which has been desired in our national education policies over the years. According to Imam Ghazali the aim of education is character building and personality development. He advocates the need of moral education both in theory and practice. This is the dominant theme of Khushal’s philosophy and he struggled to realize the same objective in his life. His educational philosophy also matches with holisitic / wholistic type of education, which is concerned with educating the whole person i.e. body, mind, soul, and spirit so that the individual may actualize his / her full potentials. Khushal is the staunch advocate of the same type of education as well. In the following chapters his approach toward education is discussed in detail. We will be well advised to examine & follow his recommendations in the reconstruction of our system of education. The Life of Khushal Khan Khattak: Chapter I attempt is made to present in brief Khushal’s early life & education, his origin, family background, his conflict with Mughal emperor and his imprisonment, his release from prison and life after imprisonment, His educational thoughts and his contributions to Pushto literature, Khushal and Iqbal's Educational Philosophy, Chapter II is focusing on various definitions of educations. Before this discussion aims and objectives of various educational commissions and policies have also been given. Types of education, i.e. formal, informal, wholistic / holistic education have been discussed. Then Khushal's and Iqbal's philosophies and approaches with the instances of their poetry and prose have been given. Khushal's Concept of Khudi: In Chapter III we have discussed Khushal’s concept of Khudi. Khudi is also one of the central and foundational terms in Iqbal's poetry. A comparative account of these two great thinkers especially on the concept of Khudi is offered in this chapter. We have examined as to how khushal Khan has taken this word? What does he mean by it? And why he teaches it to his individual? Such queries are addressed in this chapter. Khushal's Concept of Sovereignty: Chapter IV this chapter is devoted to Khushal's concept of sovereignty. Here we have mainly focused on Khushal’s famous work: Dastar Nama. This book was written in the prison when Khushal was a prison in the fort of Rathanboor. In this chapter Al-Ghazali's, Maulana Maududi’s and Qur'anic concept of sovereignty are also discussed. Here one can see as to what type of education Khushal recommends for his ideal sovereign / leader / ruler. Khushal's Concept of Wisdom: In Chapter V wisdom, in the sense of intelligence and knowledge has been defined. Then it wisdom per se is also examined. Khushal's concept of wisdom almost covers all it’s meaning In this chapter we shall see as to who qualifies as Dana, Aqalmand, Hukhiyar in Khushal’s view and whom he considers stupid, (Ahmaq, Nadan, Kam Aql, and Bay Waqoof). Khushal as interpreter of Islam: Chapter VI deals with Khushal’s scholastic approach towards Islam and his attachment with Islamic injunctions. He educates and recommends his individuals to know thy [their] Lord. For this purpose he stresses that first one should know oneself. If one succeeds in it, surely he will know his Lord. Its impact will ultimately be fell on the society .He desires a welfare Islamic society, in which each one helps and takes care of others. In order to realize this purpose, he teaches the youth higher human values in the light of Qur’an and Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH). Khushal’s Moral Education: In Chapter VII Khushal’s moral education is discussed. Khushal is keen to build the morals of his individuals according to the teachings of the Qur’an and Sunnah. Aims and objectives of secular education and the objectives of Islamic education are also examined in brief in the chapter. Khushal as a preacher of peace and Proponent of perpetual struggle: In Chapter VIII we have tried to examine Khushal’s Philosophy of War and Peace. A general impression about Khushal Khan Khattak is that he was a warrior. No doubt, he was, but for what purpose he fought these wars? This chapter deals with such kinds of causes. Our contention is that he was a great preacher of Peace. He restored to war as a last resort & its purpose was the establishment of peace. His concept of peace was developed through the deep study of the Qur’an and Sunnah. He suggests different kinds of punishments for the violent groups and praises each step which should be taken for the purpose of peace. In the last portion the impact of wars and violence on the society has been discussed. Khushal’s Concept of Ideal Man: Chapter IX is devoted to Khushal’s concept of an Ideal Man. This is the last chapter of our study. It deals with all those attributes that Khushal wants to see in his ideal man. He wants that individuals should inculcate Godly attributes in themselves. He admires such attributes, which should present a picture of Tukhalliqu-bi-akhlaqillah. To him strenuous efforts, die-hard, strife for the establishment of peace and justice loving care & compassion for others are the ingredients for ideal man. These qualities he found in Hawk and Eagle, this is why he stresses his ideal man to be a Baz and Shabaz, thus its qualities of honour and self-respect will infuse in you and you will become khushal’s Nagyal.
|Item Type:||Thesis (PhD)|
|Additional Information:||Khushal Khan Khattak’s, Educational, Philosophy, foresight, genius, justice, multidimensional, person|
|Subjects:||Social Sciences(g) > Education(g6)|
|Deposited By:||Mr. Javed Memon|
|Deposited On:||15 Mar 2011 11:27|
|Last Modified:||15 Mar 2011 11:27|
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