Title of Thesis
Experimental Study Of The Behavior Of Pre-Perforated
Post-Reinforced Baked Clay Panels Of Beams
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of
Engineering / Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering Science &
|Number of Pages|
|Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and
abstract of thesis)|
Behavior, Pre-Perforated, Post-Reinforced, Baked, Clay, Panels,
Beams, RCC construction, Rectangular beams
Altogether fifty one
large size beams of clay were moulded, compacted, baked,
postreinforced, grouted with cement-sand slurry, cured and tested to
study the behaviour of these beams. Different parameters were set in
order to check the suitability of these universally available
materials of construction, i.e. clay, silt and pit-sand (silica) for
lowcost housing without sacrificing durability, the strength and
elegance of buildings in the plain areas where the soil is alluvial.
Standard materials of construction like hill-sand, coarse aggregate,
cement and steel bars are to be transported over large distances for
RCC construction. Four Reinforced concrete beams were also cast and
tested for the sake of comparison. Preliminary studies were carried
out on soil samples collected from twenty five different sites in
terms of their physical composition and presence of various salts
and other chemicals. Their effect on the strength of baked
specimenswas also studied. A systematic study was performed
experimentally to find the best composition in terms of ratio (clay
: pit-sand), the intensity of compression force required for manual
moulding and compaction which would impart reasonably good crushing
strength to this material (comparable with that of concrete) without
compromising on economy. The moisture content was also a parameter
of preliminary experimental study to ensure sufficient workability
and minimum possible void ratio. The various drying techniques were
tried finally to arrive at the best possible system which would not
cause cracking. The compressive strength as high as (6100 psi ) 42
N/mm2 has been achieved which can be compared with (3000 psi ) 20
N/mm2 for concrete used in ordinary buildings. The modulus of
rupture with a reasonable comparison to ordinary concrete has also
been achieved. Flexural behaviour as well as shear strength of beams
manufactured from this material were studied for the following
1. Rectangular beams, simply supported subjected to point load at
2. I-beams, simply supported subjected to point load at the centre.
3. Rectangular beams, supported on plates on both the ends subjected
to Uniformly Distributed Load.
4. Rectangular beams, fixed at both the ends subjected to Uniformly
5. Rectangular as well as I-section beams, simply supported with
only bottom steel consisting of two bars.
6. Rectangular beams reinforced with four bars two at top and two at
bottom, simply supported subjected to Uniformly Distributed Load.
7. Rectangular beams with vertical steel as shear reinforcement,
simply supported subjected to Uniformly Distributed Load.
8. Rectangular as well I-section beams subjected to pre-compression
to improve the shear strength and simply supported beams subjected
to point load at centre and also with Uniformly Distributed Load.
9. Rectangular beams with enhanced compacting force, simply
supported as well as plate support on both the ends subjected to
point load at centre and also with Uniformly Distributed Load.
The beams tested were relatively of large size, 1980 mm (6.5 ft)
long, 150 mm (6 inch) thick and 300 mm (12 inch) deep. After
shrinkage the final dimensions were determined and the average
shrinkage was found, 1868 mm (6.13 ft), 143 mm (0.47 ft) and 286mm
(0.94 ft). Several problems were faced and attempts were made to
over-come those through various techniques, the details of which are
presented in this thesis. The results are encouraging and there is a
bright possibility to achieve reasonably good economy if pre-cast
panels of this type of materials are produced on mass scale by
adopting mechanized system for swift moulding, transportation to the
site and erection of the buildings.