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Title of Thesis

Tasneem Khatoon
Institute/University/Department Details
Islamia University Bahawalpur/Department of Chemistry
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
rutaceae, citrus, pakistan, citrus limon (linn). burm f. (var. jatti khatti), citrus reticulate blanco (var. kinnow), citrus limetta risso(var. mitha), citrus aurantifolia (chrism) swingle

Phytochemical investigation were carried out on plant species of genus Citrus of the family Rutaceae of Pakistan.

Rutaceae is a tropical and temperate family of 150 genera and 1600 species and is economically very important. The species of the family are rich in biologically active compounds, e.g., flavonoids, coumarins, alkaloids and limonoids.

The species of the genus Citrus studied during these investigations were C. limon Linn. (var. Jatti Khatti), C. reticulaa Blanco (var. kinnow), C. Limetta Risso (var. mitha), and C. aurantifolia Swing. (var. kaghzi nimboo). The chemical constituents were separated by VLC, TLC, and PTCL from the alcoholic extract of the defatted leaves of these species. The purified and crystallized isolates were subjected to instrumental analysis to elucidate their structures. The instrumental techniques employed were IR, UV, NMR and MS. The structures of various compounds isolated from different species were also confirmed by comparison with authentic samples, wherever possible.

The constituents separated and structurally confirmed from leaves of each species were:

Citrus limon (Linn) Burm f. (var. Jatti Khatti): Four flavonoids 5,7,8,3’,4’-pentamethoxy flavone (CL-1); 5,7,8,4’-tetramethoxy flavone (CL-5); 5, 6,7, 8, 3’, 4’-hexamethoxy flavone (CL-6);5, 6, 7, 8, 4’-pentamethoxy flavone (CL-7); and four coumarins Xanthoxyletin (CL-2); Limettin (CL-3); Umbelliferone (CL-4); and Scopoletin (CL-8) were purified and structurally confirmed.

The flavonoids 5,7,8,3’,4’-pentamethoxy flavone, 5, 7, 8, 4’-tetramethoxy flavone, 5, 6, 7, 8, 3’, 4’-hexamethoxy flavone and 5, 6, 7, 8, 4’-pentamethoxy flavone are reported for the first time from this species.

Citrus reticulate Blanco (var. Kinnow): Presence of Sucrose (CR-1) and six flavonoids 3, 5,, 6, 7, 3’,4’-hexamethoxy flavone (CR-2); 3, 5, 7, 8, 3’, 4’-hexamethoxy flavone (CR-3); 5,6,8, 4’-tetramethoxy flavone 7-propionate (CR-5); 5, 6, 7, 8, 3’, 4’-hexamethoxy flavone (CR-6); 5, 7, 8, 3’,4’-pentamethoxy flavone (CR-7); and 3, 6, 7, 8, 4’-pentamethoxy flavone (CR-8) was confirmed from this species along with a carbazole alkaloid Heptaphylline (CR-4).

The flavonoids 3, 5, 6,7, 3’, 4’-hexamethoxy flavone, 3, 5, 7, 8, 3’,4’-hexamethoxy flavone, 3, 6, 7, 8, 4’-pentamethoxy flavone and the carbazole alkaloid Heptaphylline, are reported for the frist time from this species. 5, 6, 8, 4’-tetramethoxy flavone-7-propionate is reported for the first time from the natural origin and is a new flavonoid.

Citrus Limetta Rissa (vaar. Mitha); Three flavonoids 3,5, 6, 7, 3’, 4’-hexamethoxy flavone (CLT-1); 3-hydroxy-5, 6, 7, 8, , 3’, 4’-hexamethoxy flavone (CLT-2); and 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 3’, 4’-heptamethoxy flavone (CLT-3) were isolated and their structures were confirmed on the basis of spectral analysis. Two coumarins Seselin (CLT-4) and Limettin (CLT-5) were also isolated from this species. The presence of 3,5,6,7,3’, 4’-hexamethoxyflavone, 3 hydroxy 5,6, 7, 8, 3’, 4’-hexamethoxyflavone and 3,5,6,7,8, 3’, 4’-heptamethoxy flavone is reported for this species.

Citrus aurantifolia Swing. (var. Kaghzi nimboo). Four coumarins were separated, purified and identified from this species, which are Limettin (CA-1), Bergapten(CA-2), Imperatorin (CA-3) and Isopimpinellin (CA-4). The presence of allthese coumarins have already been reported in this species.

Limettin was isolated from all the plants investigated except C. reticulate, wheeas 5, 7, 8, 3’, 4’-pentamethoxy flavone and 5,6,7,8, 3’, 4’-hexamethoxy flavone were present both in C. Limon and C. reticulate. The flavonoids reported are exclusive for the species investigated. Heptaphylline, a carbazole alkaloid, is reported for the firstt time from Citrus reticulate and was not isolated from the other species studied.

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5811.03 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents/ Abstract
295.51 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
1857.59 KB
  1.1 Secondary Metabolites of the Species of Rutaceae family 5
  1.2 Essential Oils of the Rutaceae 96
  1.3 Dimeric Compounds Found in Rutaceae 99
  1.4 Synthesis 120
3 2 The History of Citrus 121
1047.78 KB
  2.1 Chemotaxonomy of the genus Citrus 123
  2.2 Importance of Citrus 125
  2.3 Citrus of Pakistan 128
  2.4 Aims and Objectives 167
4 3 Materials and Methods 169
959.94 KB
  3.1 Materials 169
  3.2 Purification of Solvents 170
  3.3 General Procedure for Extraction and Analysis 172
  3.4 Chromatography 174
  3.5 Instrumental Analysis 178
  3.6 Experimental 181
5 4 Results and Discussion 209
1241.44 KB
  4.1 Citrus Limon (Linn). Burm f. (var. Jatti Khatti ) 209
  4.2 Citrus reticulate Blanco (var. Kin now) 237
  4.3 Citrus Limetta Risso ( var. Mitha ) 254
  4.4 Citrus aurantifolia (Chrism) Swingle ( var.Kaghzi nimboo ) 265
  4.5 Spectra 274
6 5 References 292
356.18 KB