|Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and
abstract of thesis)|
Message Consumption, Adoption, Agricultural Innovations,
Diffusion of innovations model, Two-step flow, Individual innovation
theory, Technology acceptance model, knowledge, Attitude, Practice
level, NWFP, Pakistan
This dissertation develops a framework for adoption of innovations. The study investigates message consumption and adoption of agricultural innovations by the farmers' of NWFP, Pakistan. This study discusses the way in which information is transferred through different channels, i.e., mass media and interpersonal communication, and influence farmers' decisions to adopt agricultural innovations. It also investigates the sources through which farmers are first exposed to the new methods and/or practices. The assessment of adoption process provides valuable information to the researchers, extensionists and policy makers to identify reasons of low productivity. Study it observes, the adoption level of farmers for new methods of production and use of technologies.
It focuses on the adequate answers to the main three research questions that is "To what extent the farmers are exposed to the messages of agricultural innovations"? "Do the farmers get opinion and information about agricultural innovations from opinion leaders"? And "does media as a source of reinforcement motivates farmers for adopting innovations"?
This exploratory study takes into account, the PTV, PBC and, interpersonal communication of two-step flow in diffusion of agricultural innovation processes. It assumes the frequency and index of exposure to various sources of information that ultimately predict the farmers' uses of messages about agricultural innovations. Four objectives of this empirical investigation's are: first "to identify and compare the messages of radio and TV and interpersonal communication in diffusion of agricultural innovations" second "to find out the knowledge, attitude and practice level of the farmers" third" to document the use of messages in motivating farmers towards modern technology" and four" to explore the extent and amount of the farmers who in turn to get opinion and information from opinion leaders".
To meet the cited objectives four hypotheses are formulated as: firstly, "greater the exposure to the messages of agricultural innovations, the greater is the knowledge, attitude and, practice level" secondly, "farmers interconnected through interpersonal communication are likely to have a higher agricultural innovations' adoption score than those who are not" And thirdly, "the higher is the exposure to agriculture technological innovations, the higher will be the relevant index of use". The data is analyzed through statistical tests and the empirical evidence provides the acceptance and rejection regions of the null and alternative hypotheses.
The study introduces the background knowledge, significance of the phenomenon, the importance of the period and, objectives of the study. It further deals with the review of the existing literature in the field under investigation. The adoption and diffusion of innovations has an extensive literature history. Similarly the study sets the theoretical foundations. It also argues the process of introducing knowledge, attitude, and practice level of the farmers into their farms may be understood by taking the lead of others who have used DOI research to gain insight into the phenomenon. Within this context, the theoretical underpinning presents the research model and the variables that are derived from Rogers and Shoemaker's (1973) model "diffusion of innovation" which is a simplified version of a causal scheme to describe how all the communities perceive and experience is exercise. It is; of course, a deductive inquiry which tends to test established model and theory. The methodology used here is exploratory and explanatory in nature for evaluating message-oriented information related to agricultural innovation practices. This survey adopts all farmers in the sample of enumeration in NWFP. The target population for the AOAI survey consists of 24 districts. In this cross-sectional survey face-to-face interview is scheduled. A sample of 500 farmers is interviewed. There is a high degree of clustering, the effects of which are well known. In such a situation, multi-stage cluster sampling method is adopted with severe care to minimize the error due to sampling. A standardized questionnaire is designed to be distributed through trained M Sc. students of the Journalism & Mass Communication. This study investigates the results of the data. This analysis implies both descriptive and inferential techniques of Statistics. The first category comprises the analysis through frequency distribution and graphical description. In the second category two way analysis of variance and chi-square is applied for treatment of statistical hypotheses testing. To test the significant difference among responses, a level of significance is prefered to be set at 5%. The critical region for rejecting the stated hypothesis is then given by generally if Fcal >= Ftab where Fcal is observed value of test statistic, under the assumption that the hypothesis tested will be true.
It also examines the communication channels used in the diffusion of an innovation. The degree of influence of each channel was evaluated to determine its impact on the process of diffusion. This investigation compared mass media and interpersonal influences with change agent contact, which combined interpersonal, and mass media influences.
This empirical study concludes the outcomes of the results of all demographic variables like (age wise respondents are male (100%), between the age category of 20-65 years (38%), and have no formal education, while education wise farmers have primary level education. This indicates that a huge group of farmers did not have got understood the messages of information sources. Having low monthly income partially adopted ideas but can't purchase agricultural technology) and as well as the dependent and independent variables. Similarly it proposes implementations, suggestions and, recommendation for the improvement of agriculture development. This study highlights implementation perspective that contains, "...both the content and process of dealing with ideas, programs, activities, structures, and policies that are new to the people involved". It also discusses serious problems faced by Pakistan. In agriculture sector it will take many years of hard work to bring the economy back on track to set it on the course towards a high level of sustainable growth. This study suggests policies for government and decision makers. It also recommends that future studies should consider the influence of identified variables on adoption over time.