I= ACTIVITIES BASED ON LOW-COST MATERIALS (EQUIPMENT, GLASSWARE, CHEMICALS) IN TEACHING CHEMISTRY AT SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL IN PAKISTAN
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Title of Thesis
ACTIVITIES BASED ON LOW-COST MATERIALS (EQUIPMENT, GLASSWARE, CHEMICALS) IN TEACHING CHEMISTRY AT SECONDARY SCHOOL LEVEL IN PAKISTAN

Author(s)
Iffat Ara Hussain
Institute/University/Department Details
University of Peshawar/Institute of Education and Research
Session
1998
Subject
Number of Pages
214
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
science education, secondary school, equipment, materials

Abstract
It is in this context that the natural and physical sciences, study and use of environment and local resources has been recognized as one of the basic areas of school curriculum in many developing countries including Pakistan. Keeping in view the significance, study in hand is selected to design low cost activities based on low cost materials (equipment, glassware, chemicals) in teaching chemistry at secondary school level in Pakistan.

The nature of the study is experimental. Two semi standardized academic achievement tests in the selected content areas of chemistry for IX class were prepared and administered to 9th class as pretest and posttest. Sample was selected randomly. Experimental and Control Groups were formulated from the sample. Experiments were conducted to experimental group with low cost materials and to control group with high cost materials. Data was collected through pretest and posttest, tabulated accordingly and statistical analysis was carried out. On the basis of the analysis, findings, conclusions are being quoted. Recommendations have also been suggested to popularize the use of low cost materials in science education at secondary school level.

Download Full Thesis
1097.72 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
81.11 KB
2 1 Description Of The Study 1
52.25 KB
  1.1 Introduction 1
  1.2 Statement of the Problem 7
  1.3 Hypotheses of the study. 7
  1.4 Expected Outcomes of the Study. 8
  1.5 Delimitation of the Study. 9
3 2 Review Of The Related Literature 10
308.11 KB
  2.1 The Aims of Science Education at Secondary School Level. 10
  2.2 Science Education at Secondary School Level. 17
  2.3 Experimentation in Science Education. 21
  2.4 Equipment and Materials used in Science Laboratories at Secondary Level. 32
  2.5 The Development of Low Cost Materials in Science Education. 35
  2.6 The Present Status of the Development of Low Cost Materials in Science Education in the Selected Member Countries. 53
4 3 Research Design 67
115.94 KB
  3.1 The Nature of the Study 67
  3.2 Design 68 * Procedure 70
  3.3 Preparation of the Test Instruments 71
  3.4 Designing Laboratory Experiments with Low Cost Materials parallel to experiments with High Cost Materials. 75
  3.5 Administration of the Pretest. 77
  3.6 Formulation of the Two Groups. 78
  3.7 Preparation of the Laboratory Experiments. 81
  3.8 Conducting the Experiments 82
  3.9 Administration of the Posttest. 87
5 4 Analysis Of Data 88
151.49 KB
  4.0.1 Measures of Control Tendency The Mean 88
  4.0.2 Significance of the difference 90
  4.1 Between two Means on Posttest 93
  4.1.1 Comparison of the Performance between 93
  4.2 Experimental & Control Group -Knowledge-Pretest 95
6 5 Findings ,Conclusions And Recommendations 1 2
56.58 KB
  Conclusions 116
  Recommendations 11 8
  Recommendations for Further Researches 121
7 6 Bibliography 122
58.54 KB
8 7 Appendix 1 31
537.51 KB