Department Of Applied Psychology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan

Sarwat Sultan, . (2009) Department Of Applied Psychology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan. Doctoral thesis, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan.

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The present research was carried out to examine the psychological aspects of infertility as prevailing in Pakistani society. The study aimed at investigating and comparing the differences in the levels of depression, anxiety, aggression, self-esteem, marital satisfaction and sexual satisfaction inflicted by infertile and fertile couples. The study further focused on the extent of psychological aspects of infertile couples of different age, sex, educational qualifications, income levels and languages. Furthermore, to explore the role of nuclear/joint family system, urban/rural area, and male/female-factor infertility in raising depression, anxiety and aggression, and in lowering self-esteem, marital and sexual satisfaction of infertile couples, was also another important objective of the study. The study was carried out into three parts; part I including two phases; phase I (involved in adaptation and translation of the six instruments to be used in main study) and phase II (involved in psychometric properties), part II (i.e., pilot study) and part III (i.e., main study). In part 1, the instruments including Beck Depression Inventory (Beck et al., 1961), Beck Anxiety Inventory (Beck & Steer, 1993), Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992), Index of Self-Esteem (Hudson, 1981), Index of Marital Satisfaction (Hudson, 1981) and Index of Sexual Satisfaction (Hudson, 1981) were adapted and translated by using Back-Translation Method. The adaptation of the instruments envisaged preparation of indigenous scales for the study. The whole process was done through judges’ empirical evaluations. Another objective of part I was to measure the psychometric properties of six scales. All the scales were found to be highly internally consistent, reliable and valid. The main purpose of the pilot study was to finalize the instruments to be used in the main study and to test their psychometric properties. Psychometric properties of these scales were tested on a random sample of 25 infertile couples and 25 fertile couples taken from Multan, Sahiwal and Lahore. In the main study, scales finalized in the pilot study were used to accomplish the objectives of the present research. A sample of 400 couples (200 infertile couples and 200 fertile couples) were taken from different cities including Multan, Khanewal, Sahiwal, Vehari, Melsi, Bahawalpur, Lahore, and Rawalpindi-Islamabad. The age range of couples was 20 to 65 years. They were administered six scales indigenously developed including BDI, BAI, AQ, ISE, IMS and ISS. Moreover, a personal informational questionnaire was also used to seek demographic information from the participants such as age, sex, educational qualifications, income levels, languages, family system, urban/rural area, and male/female-factor infertility. The scales were presented in the form of a booklet. Unstructured interview was also performed with 60 infertile couples to collect more qualitative data pertaining to their emotional disturbances. The analysis was completed on SPSS using mean, SD, independent sample ttest, paired t-test, ANOVA, post-hoc test and multiple regression analysis. The results indicated that infertile couples tend to demonstrate higher levels of depression, anxiety, aggression, and lower levels of self-esteem, marital satisfaction and sexual satisfaction as compared to that of fertile couples. Findings of the gender differences suggested that males and females have no differences in their levels of aggression, marital satisfaction and sexual satisfaction. However, infertile females tend to have higher levels of depression, anxiety and low levels of self-esteem as compared to infertile males. The data provided evidence that income, family system and rural/urban area do not play any important role in deterioration of emotional disturbances of infertile couples. Only one difference was to be found significant on AQ regarding rural/urban areas. These findings suggested that infertile couples from rural areas are more engaged in aggressive behaviors as compared to infertile couples from urban areas. Results concerning educational qualification indicated that infertile people with matric qualifications are more aggressive as compared to infertile people having post graduate qualifications. Furthermore, infertile people having bellow matric qualifications are in less satisfying marriages as compared to infertile people with F.A qualifications. It was also found that age of subjects has no effect on their levels of depression, anxiety, aggression, self-esteem and marital satisfaction except on sexual satisfaction. These findings further showed the positive role played by language for depression, anxiety and sexual satisfaction but nonsignificant effects of language on aggression, self-esteem and marital satisfaction. The study yielded important findings that the partner who is diagnosed with cause of infertility are less likely to have sexual satisfaction and high self-esteem as compared to other partner diagnosed with no cause of infertility. The findings of this study were also suggestive of this fact that the couples, who have the male-factor infertility, are more anxious and have a decline in their level of self-esteem and sexual satisfaction as compared to couples having femalefactor infertility.

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Psychological, Aspects, Infertility, Psychometric, Adaptation, Demonstrate, Aggression, Instruments, Couples, Society, Depression
Subjects: B Philosophy. Psychology. Religion > BF Psychology
Depositing User: Ms Maryam Saeed
Date Deposited: 23 Aug 2017 06:25
Last Modified: 23 Aug 2017 06:25

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