Amjad , Habib (2008) Estimation of the Residues of Antibiotics in Poultry Products Available in Local Markets. PhD thesis, University of the Punjab, Lahore.
The problem of bird lit, has seriously affected the poultry industry. This is caused by resistance of micro-organisms developed against the antibiotics which are frequently used against them sub-therapeutically or through prophylactic treatments. In fact the quantity of the residual antibiotics is mainly concerned with the problem of bacterial resistance. The quantity above the maximum residue limit (MRL) of a specific antibiotic is important for causing the bacterial resistance. Otherwise the amounts below MRL's are safer. This investigative endeavour was to quantify the residues of antibiotics, prepare their data round the year and compare them with their respective MRL's. The monitoring of these antibiotic residues will not only curb potential diseases like bird-flu and clinical complications but also will save the consumers of poultry products from the untowards after-effects to the trophic pyrmid of the global ecosystem. This monitoring of the residues has become a world level necessity and effort. Globalization has brought the nations of the world closer together through trade, labour and other social activities. I undertook this research program to find which antibiotic residues were above MRL's or otherwise. The antibiotic residues estimated were flumequine, nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid, denofloxacin, ofloxacin. ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, nortloxacin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, doxycycline and chlorotetracycline. Flumequine residues were 28.38 and 40.83 µg/kg in broiler liver and kidney respectively and 62.20 and 86.80 µg/kg in layer liver and kidney respectively during summer; it was absent in till the tissues during autumn, winter and spring. Chlorotetracycline residues were 50.93, 96.35 and 15.44 µg/kg in broiler liver, kidney and muscle respectively in summer and were absent in any poultry tissue for rest of the year. Oxytetracycline residues were found round the year in various poultry tissues maximum being 288.46 µg/kg in broiler kidney during summer and those minimum being 10.01 µg/kg in layer egg during winter. Enrolloxacin and ciprofloxacin residues were also extracted from the poultry samples throughout the year maximum enrofloxacin residues were 2127.47 µg/kg in broiler kidney during summer and that minimum 7.49 µg/kg in broiler muscle during winter. ciprofloxacin residues were found being maximum 249.46 µg/kg in broiler kidney during summer and minimum 27.31 µg/kg in layer egg during winter. Generally the decreasing residual order in poultry tissues/organs was kidney, liver and muscle in broiler and kidney. liver, egg and muscle in layers. the maximum residues were found during summer and those during winter. Broilers generally have higher residual values than layers as compared to their respective tissues/organs and seasons. Generally the summer samples had maximum residual values and the winter had the minimum. The techniques used for identification of the residues were TLC and HPLC and that for quantification was HPLC with UV detector. The Column used was reverse phase Cix at the ambient temperature.
|Item Type:||Thesis (PhD)|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||Estimation, Residues, Antibiotics, Poultry, Products, Available, Local, Markets, micro-organisms, labour, enrofloxacin|
|Subjects:||Physical Sciences (f) > Chemistry(f2)|
|Deposited By:||Mr. Javed Memon|
|Deposited On:||21 Oct 2010 09:23|
|Last Modified:||19 Jul 2011 10:35|
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