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Title of Thesis

Riasat Ali
Institute/University/Department Details
University of Arid Agriculture /University Institute of Education and Research
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
biology, teaching strategy, modular teaching, secondary level, urdu medium, academic achievement

A module is a new teaching strategy for arranging learning experiences in education and it has been receiving much attention. The strategy of learning modules has become a part of all level of teaching. A learning module is a self-learning package dealing with one specific subject matter unit. It can be used in any setting convenient to the learner and may be completed at the learner’s own pace. It may be used individually or in small groups. It is structured in such a way that learner can identify the objectives he/she wants to achieve, select the appropriate material, follow a learning sequence by selecting from a variety of methods of presentation, and evaluate his/her own achievements. In module learning teachers becomes a facilitator of learning rather than the traditional dispenser of knowledge. Sufficient theory and practice are available for the application of modular teaching in our classrooms. Therefore as, a prelude, a study was conducted in order to check the “Development and Effectiveness of Modular Teaching in Biology at Secondary level” A factorial design (2x2) was used for the treatment of data. The students of Urdu Medium Government Secondary Schools studying biology constituted the population of the study. Two sections of 9th class of FG Boys High School Naugazi Islamabad, equally divided on the basis of teacher made pretest scores were taken as the sample of the study. A treatment of developed modules was provided to experimental group while control group was taught by using traditional method for a period of twelve weeks. At the end of treatment, a teacher made posttest parallel to pretest was administered to measure the achievement of the students. After a gap of six weeks, the same posttest was administered surprisingly to test the retention of students. To determine the effects of modular teaching on the academic achievement and effect of modular approach on high achievers vs low-achievers, the significance of difference between the scores of groups at 0.05 level was tested by applying t-test and analysis of variance. Data analysis reveled that both the experimental and the control groups were almost equal in biological base at the beginning of the experiment. The experimental group scored significantly higher than the control group on posttest showing the supremacy of modular approach over traditional method of teaching. However, comparison of mean scores of high achievers and low achievers of the experimental and control group showed that there was no significant difference between the mean scores of high achievers of th experimental and the control groups. But there was a significant difference between means of low achievers of the experimental and the control groups at 0.05 level i.e. low achievers of the experimental group performed significantly better than low achievers of control group on posttest. On retention test, there was no significant difference between the mean scores of the experimental and the control groups. Also there was no significant difference between the mean scores of high achievers of the experimental and control groups on retention test on the other hand, low achievers of the control group. Hence, the ultimate result of the study indicated that modular approach was more effective instructional paradigm for biology as compared to the traditional method of teaching Further; modular teaching appeared more favorable for low achievers than high achievers. The results of this study provide base for the application of modular approach in the biology classrooms as well as for further research in this field for the further extension of this method to other subjects and levels.

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2483.83 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
92.98 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
93.41 KB
3 2 Review Of Literature 11
900.73 KB
  2.1 Introduction 11
  2.2 Modular Teaching 13
  2.3 The Concept Of Need In Module 17
  2.4 Design Of Modular Program 19
  2.5 System Theory And Modules 24
  2.6 Fundamental Characteristics Of Module 29
  2.7 Role Of Module In Education 38
  2.8 Writing Objectives Of Module 45
  2.9 The Structure Of A Module 54
  2.10 The Special Role Of Audio-Visual Aids 64
  2.11 The Nature And Role Of Feedback 68
  2.12 Construction And Use Of Pre-Test And Post-Test 74
  2.13 Evaluation, Trailing And Validation Of Modules 82
  2.14 Implementing A Modular Program 87
  2.15 Monitoring And Amending Modular Program 93
  2.16 Other Methods Of Teaching Biology 94
  2.17 The Individualized Learning And Self-Paced Learning 101
  2.18 Research In Modular Teaching 108
  2.19 Problems Of Modular Approach 109
4 3 Research Methodology 110
74.14 KB
  3.1 Population 111
  3.2 Delimitations Of The Study 111
  3.3 Sample 112
  3.4 Research Instruments 112
  3.5 Selection And Training Of Teachers For Experiment 113
  3.6 Data Collection 115
  3.7 Analysis Of Data 116
5 4 Results And Discussion 119
168.16 KB
  Discussion 131
  Summary 136
  Conclusions 138
6 5 Recommendations 140
767.69 KB
7 6 Literature Cited 142
71.43 KB
8 7 Proposed Modules and Appendices 150
606.93 KB