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Title of Thesis

Mussawar Shah
Institute/University/Department Details
University Of Agriculture/ Department Of Rural Sociology
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
contraception, women, male, fatalism, son preference, women’s right, birth rate, family planning

A total of 613 married males (15-49 years old) were randomly interviewed in five bazaars selected through cluster sampling from the total fifteen bazaars located in old city area of Peshawar to study the influence of gender roles on contraceptive use behavior. Average birth rate was 4.13, while number of surviving children per couple was 3.51, representing 1.89 sons and 1.62 daughters. Majority of the respondents showed moderately consistent behavior to contraceptive use and had a clear concept of family planning. Taking income, literacy and family type as control variables, literate men favored (P<0.05) women’s rights and women’s involvement in reproductive decision making and family planning communication. Respondents in low income group favored (P<0.05) women’s involvement in reproductive and contraceptive decision making while medium income group favored (P<0.05) women’s involvement in reproductive decision making only. Respondents in joint families favored (P<0.05) women’s involvement in decision-making on reproductive matters but opposed their participation in family planning communication. Literate respondents, having nuclear families and low level of income strongly opposed women’s involvement in household decision making and family planning communication. The Respondents had considerable reservation to in-public discussion/advertisement of family planning being against the social norms. Although, sons were preferred over daughters, raising girl was not considered a burden. Gathering information about family planning and deciding to develop relationship with relatives excluding friends as favored by most of the respondents. Although, majority of the respondents favored giving due respect to women in the society, sometimes respondent was positive to one aspect of women’s right but negative to another at the same time, keeping in view social/cultural obligations. Women’s involvement in decision making on house purchase/construction, number of children and their education and discussion about contraception was favored by most of the respondents. Husband/wife mutual discussion on fertility control, societal acceptance of contraceptive use and raising a girl was significantly (P<0.05) and positively affected by educational status of respondents. Literate respondents significantly (P<0.05) favored women’s higher education, paid jobs, husbands also responsible for bareness, contraception being having lesser side effects as compared to repeated pregnancies and women’s involvement in deciding contraceptive use. Similar response was shown to women’s higher education, consultation about selecting children’s marriage partner, men also responsible for bareness, societal acceptance of contraception and raising a girl in nuclear family system. Positive and significant (P<0.05) relationship existed between low income; and women’s higher education, women’s paid job, contraception being having lesser side effects as compared to repeated pregnancies, family planning and preference for sons as security against old age. Higher income status significantly (P<0.05) and positively affected women’s higher education and men also responsible for bareness. For general acceptance of contraceptive use, men along with women should be included in the target group as most of the decisions regarding family planning and contraception necessitate prior approval of males/husbands under the prevalent culture. Public propagation of contraceptives should be initiated under the concept of “Azzal” having religiously tacit support and special centers be established to accomplish the task of involving men in the process.

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1812.33 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents/ Abstract
144.92 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
53.37 KB
3 2 Review Of Literature 6
255.41 KB
  2.1 Contraception And Factors Affecting Its Adoption 6
  2.2 Son Preference And Its Consequences 16
  2.3 Women Being The Most Neglected Agent In The South Asian Societies 22
  2.4 Synthesis Of Review Of Literature 27
4 3 Materials And Methods 32
68.32 KB
  3.1 Sampling 32
  3.2 Data Collection 33
  3.3 Reliability Analysis 35
  3.4 Data Analysis 36
5 4 Results And Discussion 39
1143.75 KB
  4.1 Respondents’ Profile 39
  4.2 Males’ Knowledge Abut Family Planning 44
  4.3 Male’s Attitude Towards Fatalism And Son Preference 45
  4.4 Male’s Attitude Towards Women’s Right And Role 48
  4.5 Male’s Attitude Towards Women’s Involvement In Household And Reproductive Decision Making 51
  4.6 Male’s Attitude Towards Women Using And Getting Information About Contraceptives 54
  4.7 Respondent’s Behavior To Contraceptives And Its Use 57
  4.8 Bi-Variate Analyses 60
  4.9 Multi-Variate Analyses 81
  4.10 Bi And Multi-Variate Analysis (Indexed Variables) 110
6 5 Summary, Conclusions And Recommendations 133
98.54 KB
  5.1 Summary 133
  5.2 Conclusions 139
  5.3 Recommendations 141