Shah, Mussawar (2003) THE INFLUENCE OF GENDER ROLES ON CONTRACEPTIVE USE BEHAVIOR IN PESHAWAR, PAKISTAN. PhD thesis, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
A total of 613 married males (15-49 years old) were randomly interviewed in five bazaars selected through cluster sampling from the total fifteen bazaars located in old city area of Peshawar to study the influence of gender roles on contraceptive use behavior. Average birth rate was 4.13, while number of surviving children per couple was 3.51, representing 1.89 sons and 1.62 daughters. Majority of the respondents showed moderately consistent behavior to contraceptive use and had a clear concept of family planning. Taking income, literacy and family type as control variables, literate men favored (P<0.05) womens rights and womens involvement in reproductive decision making and family planning communication. Respondents in low income group favored (P<0.05) womens involvement in reproductive and contraceptive decision making while medium income group favored (P<0.05) womens involvement in reproductive decision making only. Respondents in joint families favored (P<0.05) womens involvement in decision-making on reproductive matters but opposed their participation in family planning communication. Literate respondents, having nuclear families and low level of income strongly opposed womens involvement in household decision making and family planning communication. The Respondents had considerable reservation to in-public discussion/advertisement of family planning being against the social norms. Although, sons were preferred over daughters, raising girl was not considered a burden. Gathering information about family planning and deciding to develop relationship with relatives excluding friends as favored by most of the respondents. Although, majority of the respondents favored giving due respect to women in the society, sometimes respondent was positive to one aspect of womens right but negative to another at the same time, keeping in view social/cultural obligations. Womens involvement in decision making on house purchase/construction, number of children and their education and discussion about contraception was favored by most of the respondents. Husband/wife mutual discussion on fertility control, societal acceptance of contraceptive use and raising a girl was significantly (P<0.05) and positively affected by educational status of respondents. Literate respondents significantly (P<0.05) favored womens higher education, paid jobs, husbands also responsible for bareness, contraception being having lesser side effects as compared to repeated pregnancies and womens involvement in deciding contraceptive use. Similar response was shown to womens higher education, consultation about selecting childrens marriage partner, men also responsible for bareness, societal acceptance of contraception and raising a girl in nuclear family system. Positive and significant (P<0.05) relationship existed between low income; and womens higher education, womens paid job, contraception being having lesser side effects as compared to repeated pregnancies, family planning and preference for sons as security against old age. Higher income status significantly (P<0.05) and positively affected womens higher education and men also responsible for bareness. For general acceptance of contraceptive use, men along with women should be included in the target group as most of the decisions regarding family planning and contraception necessitate prior approval of males/husbands under the prevalent culture. Public propagation of contraceptives should be initiated under the concept of having religiously tacit support and special centers be established to accomplish the task of involving men in the process.
|Item Type:||Thesis (PhD)|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||contraception, women, male, fatalism, son preference, women right, birth rate, family planning|
|Subjects:||Social Sciences(g) > Sociology (g19)|
|Deposited By:||Mr. Muhammad Asif|
|Deposited On:||22 Aug 2006|
|Last Modified:||04 Oct 2007 21:01|
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