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Title of Thesis

Muhammad Saeed Khan
Institute/University/Department Details
University Of Arid Agriculture/ University Institute Of Education And Research.
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
intelligence, heredity, environment, standardized test, human beings, analogies, series, classification, word building

God has blessed human beings with intelligence to make them superior among other creatures. Intelligence is overall thinking capacity or mental efficiency of an individual; an ability to carry on abstract thinking. It is general mental adaptability to solve problems of new situation of life. It is the capacity to reorganize one’s behavior patterns so as to act more effectively and more appropriately in novel situations.

Standardized test refers to the conditions under which the test is taken such as the direction that are read, the way answers are recorded and the tools students may use. The Standardized test aims to provide uniform and rapid measurement of some kind of mental capability that is related to education. Many people assume that the best data about students’ intelligence come form standardized intelligence tests.

This study was conducted to develop and standardize an intelligence test to measure the general intelligence of the students having the age range 14 to 16 years. The emphasis was laid to develop the test to measure the general intelligence as very limited attempts were made in the past education history of Pakistan.

After pre-testing, 60 items, 16 items each in first three parts and 12 in 4th part were retained. The final test consisted of 60 items having four parts; Analogies, Series (numbers and alphabetical), Classification and Word Building All of the parts of test were highly loaded on general ability factor “g” and fluid ability “gf”.

The final test was then administered to a sample of 10000 students, 2500 boys (urban), 2500 girls (urban), boys (rural) and 2500 girls (rural), of grade 9 and 10 and ages between 14 to 16 years. The sample was taken from nine districts of the province Punjab (three from each regions) and Islamabad.

The reliability of the each part of the test was explored separately by using Split-half and Kuder Richardson methods. The values of the correlation between odd and even item scores of all parts of the test were 0.49, 0.73, 0.51 and 0.87 respectively. The values of internal reliability of all parts of the test were 0.57, 0.78, 0.31 and 0.88 respectively. The KR #20 correlation rations of all parts of the test were 0.44, 0.39, 0.43 and 0.48 respectively. The results suggested high reliability The results suggested high reliability of the test both in terms of internal consistency and stability of the results.

The validity of the test was determined by finding and examining intercorrelations of different parts of the test. The different parts of the test were highly intercorrelated having values ranging from 0.68 to 0.96. The content validity of the intelligence test was also determined by taking experts’ judgments.

The data was also analyzed to find out mean scores, standard deviations and inter-correlations of the fourparts and their correlation’s with the total test. The mean percentage of correct responses indicated that part-I is the most difficult one whereas, part-4 is the easiest one. The results of inter-correlation showed that all the parts and the total test as a whole measured a common factor.

Sex, urban and rural differences were also investigated. Significant differences were found between the performances of Boys / Girls groups. Boys performed better than girls and urban students performed better than rural students.

The analysis of each alternative of each item of all parts of the test provided the conclusion that none of the alternative was too weak to be revised. The item analysis showed that most of the items of first three parts of the test were discriminating well. The results of item discrimination (0) showed that only four items of all the parts of the test having slightly less discrimination powers.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 Contents
100.36 KB
2 1. Introduction 1
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3 2. Reivew Of Literature 6
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  2.1 Theories Of Intelligence 9
  2.2 Basis For Intelligence 26
  2.3 Nature Of Intelligence 27
  2.4 Role Of Heredity And Environment On Intelligence 30
  2.5 Assessment Of Intelligence 37
  2.6 Classification Of Intelligence 38
  2.7 Use Of Intelligence Tests In The Classroom 44
  2.8 Standardization Of Intelligence Tests 46
  2.9 Characteristics Of Measuring Instruments 52
  2.10 History Of Intelligence Test 74
4 3. Research Methodology 76
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  3.1 Population 76
  3.2 Sample 76
  3.3 Instrument 76
  3.4 Data Collection 77
  3.5 Data Analysis 77
5 4. Results And Discussion 82
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  Summary 162
  4.2 Conclusions 165
  4.3 Recommendations 167