Education is conceived as a powerful agency, which is instrumental in bringing about the desired changes in the social and cultural life of a nation. The whole process of education is shaped and moulded by the human personality called the teacher, who plays a pivotal role in any system of education. The preparation of such an important functionary must conceivably get the highest priority. His is a challenging profession and only those teachers can shoulder the heavy responsibilities of nation building, who are adequately prepared and have sound professional attitude. This adequacy of preparation, of course, signifies development of adequate skills, dedication to teaching and a determination for continuous growth and learning.
Teachers are expected to use the best practices and strategies to meet challenge demands of their career. If the teachers are well trained and highly motivated, learning will be enhanced. The teaching profession demands a clear set goals, love for profession and obviously the more favourable attitude towards the profession. Pakistan needs a well-trained and professionally sound teachers and a lot of responsibility falls on teacher training institutions.
In this perspective these institution should make painstaking efforts to equip the prospective teachers not only with teaching skills but also try to promote the positive professional attitude in them. Secondary education is an important sub sector of entire education system because it is the most crucial stage of life. The competent, professionally trained and enthusiastic teachers are required to teach at this level. Therefore, a little effort was made to investigate that to what extent different teacher training institutions are successful in developing positive professional attitude of their prospective secondary school teachers. The objectives of study were: 1) To develop a reliable and valid scale to measure the professional attitude of prospective secondary school teachers. 2) To measure the development of professional attitude of prospective secondary school teachers of various teacher training institutions in Punjab. 3) To assess the effectiveness of teacher training in developing professional attitude of prospective secondary school teachers. 4) To compare the effectiveness of teacher training institutions in developing attitude of prospective secondary school teachers towards teaching profession. 5) To suggest suitable measures to improve teacher raining in Pakistan.
This study may be helpful for policy makers, administrators and teacher educators to improve the teacher-training programme. It may also be helpful for the prospective teachers as well as working teachers in developing positive attitude toward teaching profession.
Measurement of attitude is a complex phenomenon. An attitude scale was constructed and validated using Likert Method to measure the attitude towards teaching profession. Statements with moderately positive and negative effect were collected. The statements were arranged on a five-point scale. The final statements were selected after item analysis and judgmental validity. The scale was tried out through pilot testing before final administration. The sample was drawn from all the secondary school teacher-training institutions of Punjab. The sample consisted of three groups named as, final, mid and new groups. Twenty-five, each male and female students were randomly selected from all the groups. It was tried to give equal participation to male and female students of the institutions having coeducation system.
The attitude scale consisted of sixty-six items was administered to the selected sample. The researcher personally visited all the sampled institutions to collect the data. The responses were scored. Group means and t-values were computed for determining the significance of difference between the means. The chi-square was calculated to measure the overall attitude of respondents towards teaching profession. In order to identify the role played in the development of attitude toward teaching profession the variables of sex, duration of teacher training (i.e. 14+1, 14+2, 12+3), science and arts graduates were taken into account.
In the light of comparisons undertaken, it was found that the teacher training institutions were not successful in developing the professional attitude of prospective secondary school teachers. The trend in the development of attitude among female students was slightly greater than the male students. Three years teacher training programme (12+3) was more successful than one year (14+1) and two years (14+2) programme. The parents’ profession had no effect on the development of attitude. The arts and science graduates exhibit no significance difference in the development attitude.
Teacher training programmes need reevaluation and reorganization to remove the drawbacks. The teaching staff of teacher training institutions needs reevaluate their own attitudes toward teaching profession as well as their overt behavior toward the prospective teachers. The traditional selection criterion for admission in teacher training should be changed. The aptitude test should be conducted for admission by the teacher training institutions to identify those students who are inclined towards teaching profession. The duration of teacher training should be lengthened to develop a favourable attitude of student teachers towards teaching profession.