I= RESIDUAL PESTICIDE FOLBEX VA AND ITS METABOLIC PRODUCTS IN HONEY AND WAX OF TREATED BEE COLONIES
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Title of Thesis
RESIDUAL PESTICIDE FOLBEX VA AND ITS METABOLIC PRODUCTS IN HONEY AND WAX OF TREATED BEE COLONIES

Author(s)
Tariq Mahmood
Institute/University/Department Details
Islamia University Bahawalpur/ Department Of Chemistry
Session
1995
Subject
Chemistry
Number of Pages
179
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
honeybee, beekeeping, antimite, mites, honey production, acaripis woodi, apis cerana, bees wax, infestation, varroa, acarine

Abstract
A number of mite infestation control products (formic acid, lactic acid, neuron, apistan and folbex-VA) were used over three years period (1990 1993) to control varroa and acarine infestation by means of colony treatment in autumn. Treatment was given to the hives located in the hilly area of Pakistan. Folbex-VA proved to be a much effective against varroa and acarine mite. The residual levels of each product was measured in the remaining feed, honey and was. The samples were taken from each hive in the year following treatments. Chemical analysis via Gas Chromatography and HPLC showed that bromopropylate, apistan, formic acid and neuron were present in honey and wax samples. Treatments of bee colonies, using four fumigation strips containing bromopropylate, left 0.004 mg/kg residues in the honey. Residues of the breakdown product 4,4 –dibromobenzophenone were also dectected in the honey 0.003 mg/kg. The concentration of the pesticide and its breakdown products in the wax was found to be 500-1000 times higher (34-102 mg bromopropylate and 14-28 mg 4,4 –dibromobenzophenone/kg). The concentration present in the residual feed was similar to the honey. Physico-chemical parameters of honey were also determined by employing modern techniques. However, these were found to be comparable to the reported ones.

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24013.01 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 Contents/ Summary
1625.97 KB
2 1 Introduction
4370.69 KB
  1.1 History 1
  1.2 Honeybee And Beekeeping 5
  1.3 Hive Products 15
  1.4 Enemies Of The Bee 28
3 2 Literature Review 33
2884.95 KB
  2.1 Aims And Objects 51
4 3 Materials And Methods
5108.02 KB
  3.1 Chemicals And Solvents 54
  3.2 Other Reagents And Solvents 55
  3.3 Antimite Used For These Studies 58
  3.4 Degree Of Infestation Of Honeybee With Mites 60
  3.5 Comparative Efficacy Of Three Chemotherapeutic Agents And Their Subsequent Effects On Honey Production 61
  3.6 Seasonal Infestation Of The Mite Acaripis Woodi In Apis Cerana Colonies 62
  3.7 Comparative Studies Of Mite Infestation In Two Species Of Honeybees 64
  3.8 Treatments 64
  3.9 Sample Collection 69
  3.10 Extraction Of Honey Samples From Treated Bee Colonies 71
  3.11 Extraction Of Bees Wax From Treated Bee Colonies 71
  3.12 Extraction Of Residual Formic Acid 72
  3.13 Extraction Of Residual Fluvalinate In Honey 72
  3.14 Extraction Of Fluvalinate In Wax 73
  3.15 Extraction Of Residual Bromopropylate From Honey Sample 73
  3.16 Extraction Of Residual Bromopropylate From Wax Sample 74
  3.17 Standard Solution Of Bromopropylate For GC 75
  3.18 Standardization Of GC Method 75
  3.19 Gas Chromatographic Determination Of Residues 76
  3.20 HPLC Determination Of Residues 78
  3.21 The Effect Of Storage On Bromopropylate Concentration In Honey 80
  3.22 Effect Of Extraction Method On Bromopropylate Concentration In Honey 80
  3.23 Effect Of Storage On Degradation Of Bromopropylate 80
  3.24 Physico-Chemical Analysis Of Honey 81
  3.25 Chemical Characteristics 87
  3.26 Determination Of Fructose, Glucose And Sucrose In Honey 95
  3.27 Effect Of Temperature On Honey 98
5 4 Results And Discussion
7458.8 KB
  4.1 Results 99
  4.2 Discussion 128
  4.3 Conclusion 152
6 5 Bibliography 157
2793.26 KB