Akbar, Habib (2003) CARRY OVER EFFECT OF CROP MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES AND NITROGEN ON THE YIELD OF MAIZE. PhD thesis, NWFP Agriculture University, Peshawar.
A series of experiments were conducted at Malkandher Research Farm of NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar in randomized complete block design for two years (1999-2001). The objectives were to understand the integrated effect of previous crop management and current N application (0,40,80,120 kg ha-1) on summer maize (Zea Mays L,) evd Kisan-90. Legumes i.e berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum) shaftal (Trifolium resupinatum) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) with various cutting frequencies, cereals, and fallow site history were established for subsequent maize. Pre-experimental soil analyses showed high total ,mineral N enrichness i.e 0.27%. Preceding (Phase-1) rabi berseem and shaftal dry biomass incorporation further improved NO3-N and NH=4-N for subsequent maize in Phase-II. Organic matter was enhanced upto 0.88% with berseem and shaftal residue incorporation. Berseem and shaftal residue improved emergence of maize. Among management, SHo and SH3 delayed tesselling while fertilizer-N enhanced tasselling. Maize planted after cereal delayed silking (59d). Two year average indicated that maximum gap of 6-days were observed among tasselling to silking. Zero, single and two cuts showed coincidenceness for phonological developments. Maximum plant height of 158 cm was observed after SH1 followed by BHo (157cm.). Maize followed legumes had taller plants of 154 cm. Maximum cob height of 69 cm from ground was noticed when maize was sown after SH1. Cob height from ground decreased with decreasing N. Based on two years average, maximum grain filling (43) days were recorded from fallow, as well as from SH3 and berseem without cut. Interactive effect of legumes cutting and N affected grain filling duration. Two years average showed higher productive plants of 55552 ha-1 were recordedwhen sown after SH1 and fallow, while low productive plants were observed after cereal. Unfertilized and 40 kg N ha-1 increased unproductiveness. Two years average revealed that higher grains i.e 498 cob-1 were produced when maize was sown after shaftal with three cuts. Maximum grains of 508 cob-1 were produced from 80kg Nha-1. Unfertilized after three cuts resulted in lowest grains of 411 cob-1. Higher grain weight of 29.78g 100-1 was achieved after BH1. Interaction of cuts x N showed significant impact on grain weight. Higher biological yield of 13667 kg ha-1 was produced from berseem as compared to cereals. Berseem with two and three cuts yielded 12649 and 12550 kg ha-1 respectively. Higher biological yield of 13242 kg ha-1 was produced on fallow treatment. Legumes remained 2nd in rank for producing higher biological yield. Control and 40kg N ha-1 had lower biological yield of 12015, 12773 kg ha-1, respectively. Higher grain yield of 3880 kgha-1 was produced after berseem without cut. Two years average indicated that higher grain yield of 4549 kgha-1 was the consequence of BHo management technique. Combined analyses indicated that grain yield was increased with increased N. Three cuts managements of legumes produced highest grain yield of 4432 kg ha-1. Maize planted after BH1 and SH2 was inferior in tern of grain yield. Higher stover yield of 9118 kgha-1 was obtained after BHo. Higher harvest index of 35% was recorded following shaftal and 120 kg N ha-1. Over all (L x N) interaction were similar over years for harvest index. Maximum N of maize tissue at anthesis planted on fallow was 2.32%, followed by after wheat (2.24%) compared with the rests. After SH0, SH3 and SH1, the N assimilation in tissue was 2.4, 2.35 and 2.30% respectively. At maturity, N of maize tissues was 1.34% when grown after shafal with zero cut. Maximum total N of 1.06% was quantified from maiz tissues at maturity when planted on berseem plots after three cuts. Fertilizer N had increased N% in maize tissues at maturity as compared with unfertilized. Higher total N of 2.63% was quantified from maize seed as grown after BH3. Maize seed produced 2.33% N on fallow plots. Shaftal after three cuts and berseem after single cut added 1.01% organic matter. ShaftalÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂs zero cut and one cut management had built-up more organic matter than berseem. Zero and three cuts managements were superior for soil fertility in term of agronomic, phonological, and yielding ability. Pervious fallow and current fertilization with N fulfill the crop need for yield. Pre and post crop soil analysis serves as guidelines for N management. No cut management proved superior in improving soil moisture reiteration and build-up of N in soil. Coincidenceness of inflorescences left beneficial impact on later yield components. Supplementation of fertilizer nitrogen compensate crop management techniques for N availability. Both dry biomass incorporation and N application are interdependent. Conclusively preceding legumes utilizer little N from available soil pool and leave more for the subsequent crop resulting higher economic returns.
|Item Type:||Thesis (PhD)|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||crop management, maize (zea mays l), evd kisan-90, legumes berseem (trifolium alexandrinum), shaftal (trifolium resupinatum), wheat (triticum aestivum l.). barley (hordeum vulgare l.), cereals|
|Subjects:||Agriculture & Veterinary Sciences(a) > Agriculture(a1)|
|Deposited By:||Mr. Muhammad Asif|
|Deposited On:||11 Aug 2006|
|Last Modified:||04 Oct 2007 21:01|
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