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Title of Thesis

Muhammad Farooq Durrani
Institute/University/Department Details
NWFP Agriculture University / Department Of Poultry Science.
Poultry Science.
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
commercial layers, egg production, feed consumption, stocking rate

This study was carried out in Chakwal, Pakistan by collecting data on feed consumption, egg production, mortality, culling, cost of production and gross return from 109 randomly selectred layer flocks after predicting sample size during 2000 and 2001. The findings are based on an average of 52.5 weeks of growth and production, including 42 days brooding, 84 days growing and 241 days of laying period. Average number of day-old chicks started was 13063+1321, out of which 93.59% were housed in egg laying houses. Mean feed consumption per layer was 37.01 0.55 kg, comprising 1.16 0.02 kg startet, 4.17 0.05 kg grower, and 31.67 0.56 kg layer ration. Mean feed efficiency in terms of kg of layer ration consumed/dozen eggs, was 2.05 0.04. Average peak percent lay, percent lay and hen-day and hen-housed egg production was 92.130.34% 69.33 0.51% and 205.74 3.61, and 185.57 3.60 eggs, respectively. Loss due to various diseases and of unknown etiology were 6.67% and 2% respectively. Coccidiosis was the major problem causing 19.14$ losses. About 2.77% birds were culled from the flock over the whole period. Average total cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer was Rs.393.93 35.48 and Rs.432.14 36.23 and Rs.38.21 12.39, respectively. Layers kept on the floor consumed more feed (32.8 0.87 kg) and give smaller net profit per bird compared to those kept in cages (30.6 0.62 kg). Predicted critical minimum limit worked out for number hens to be housed in egg laying house, peak percent lay, percent lay and hen-day egg production was 3712 birds, 86.10% 61.01% and 185.96 eggs, respectively. Proportion of culled eggs was 3.74 0.01% including 1.03 0.01 thin-shelled and 2.71 0.02% broken eggs. Incidence of broken eggs was higher (3.80 0.70%) on floor than in cages (1.62 0.02%). Maximum critical limit calculated for mortality, feed efficiency, age at point-of-lay, age at peak-of-lay egg laying period and cost of production was 14.61% 2.49 kg, 132.84 days, 182.96 days 255 days and Rs.408.58, respectively. No heteroscedasticity was found for the estimated models, however use of such models being casual in nature didn’t take the whole production process as one entity rather than independent activities. The simultancous equations developed that most of the exogenous and endogenous variable(s) were interdependent and study of these veriable(s) in a system of equations was helpful for better prediction of the variables of economic importance. It was concluded, that increase in flock size and number of eggs produced per farm would increase while increase in mortality rate and cost of production per egg would decrease net farm income obtained from commercial eg type layer. Thus, it provided guidelines for the producer to arrive at important decisions in further and exhaust remedies other than egg price for improving profitability. In addition, efficient planning for the product to avail anticipated higher prices in the market would be another option for the producer to follow keeping in view seasonal trends in egg consumption in the country.

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1631.79 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
129.39 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
65.67 KB
3 2 Literature Review 6
263.04 KB
  Flock Size 6
  Stocking Rate 7
  Feed Consumption And Efficiency 8
  Egg Production 9
  Mortality 10
  Marek’s Disease 11
  Infectious Bursal Disease 12
  Newcastle Disease 13
  Infectious Coryza 13
  Infectious Bronchitis 14
  Avian Influenza 14
  Mycoplasmosis 15
  Salmonellas 15
  Coccidiosis 16
  Yolk Sac Infection 17
  Escherichia Coli 17
  Egg Prolapes And Cannibalism 18
  Aflatoxicosis 18
  Cost Of Production 19
  Returns And Net Profit 20
  Review Synthesis For Developing Conceptual Framework Of The Present Investigation References 21
4 3 Feed Consumption And Efficiency Of Feed 29
103.39 KB
  Utilization By Egg Type Layers For Egg Production 29
  Abstract 29
  Introduction 30
  Materials And Methods 30
  Source Of Data 30
  Measurements 31
  Data Analysis 32
  Results And Discussion 35
  Conclusions And Recommendations References 36
5 4 Egg Production Performance Of Commercial 38
171.04 KB
  Layers In Chakwal, Pakistan 38
  Abstract 38
  Introduction 39
  Materials And Method 39
  Data Source And Prediction Of Sample Size 39
  Measurements 40
  Data Analysis 41
  Results And Discussion 41
  Age At Point-Of-Lay And Age At Peak-Of-Lay 44
  Egg Laying Period 45
  Peak Percent Lay And Percent Lay 47
  Hen-Day And Hen-Housed Egg Production 49
  Culled Eggs 50
  Conclusions And Recommendations 50
  References 51
6 5 Prevalent Diseases And Mortality In 53
164.27 KB
  Commercial Layers Under Subtropical Environment 53
  Abstract 53
  Introduction 55
  Materials And Methods 55
  Source Of Data 55
  Measurements 56
  Data Analysis 57
  Results And Discussion 57
  Prevalent Diseases 58
  Mortality During Laying Period 62
  Overall Mortality 64
  Conclusions And Recommendations References 64
7 6 Cost Of Production, Gross Return And Net 67
189.34 KB
  Profit In Commercial Egg Production 67
  Abstract 67
  Introduction 68
  Materials And Method 68
  Data Source And Prediction Of Sample Size 69
  Data Collection 69
  Data Analysis 70
  Results And Discussion 70
  Cost Of Building And Equipments 71
  Food Cost 71
  Cost Of Day Old Chick 72
  Labor Cost 72
  Vaccination And Medicament Cost 73
  Electricity And Bedding Cost 73
  Miscellaneous And Transportation Cost 73
  Overall Cost Of Production 73
  Return From Marketable And Culled Eggs 74
  Return From Sale Of Spent/Culled Birds, Empty Bags And Manure 75
  Gross Return And Net Profit 75
  Conclusions And Recommendations 77
  References 77
  Tables 80
8 7 Standardizing Limits For Cost Of Production In Commercial Egg Operation 84
126.18 KB
  Abstract 84
  Introduction 84
  Materials And Method 85
  Data Collection 85
  Data Analysis 85
  Results And Discussion 86
  Total Cost Of Production 86
  Food Cost 87
  Labor Charges 88
  Day-Old Chick Cost 88
  Rent Of Building And Equipment 89
  Vaccination And Medicament Cost 90
  Transportation Cost 91
  Electricity Charges 92
  Bedding Cost 92
  Miscellaneous Expenditure 93
  Conclusions And Recommendations 94
  References 94
9 8 Predicting Standard Limit For Traits Of Economic Importance In Commercial Egg Production. 96
124.17 KB
  Abstract 96
  Introduction 97
  Materials And Method 98
  Data Collection 98
  Data Analysis 98
  Results And Discussion 98
  Flock Sizes 99
  Mortality 99
  Feed Efficiency 100
  Age At Point-Of-Lay And Age At Peak-Of-Lay 101
  Peak Percent Lay And Percent Hen-Day Egg Production 102
  Hen-Day Egg Production 104
  Egg Lying Period 104
  Conclusions And Recommendations 105
  References 105
10 9 Using Recursive Models For Estimating Relationship Amongst Various Endogenous Variables In Egg Production Enterprise 108
95.98 KB
  Abstract 108
  Introduction 108
  Materials And Method 109
  Results And Discussion 111
  Heteroscedasticity 112
  Conclusions And Recommendations 113
  References 114
11 10 Using Simultaneous Equations For Various Interdependent Variables In Commercial Egg Operation 116
129.36 KB
  Abstract 116
  Introduction 116
  Materials And Method 117
  Measurements 118
  Data Collection And Analyses 118
  Results And Discussion 119
  Conclusions And Recommendations 123
  References 124
12 11 Overall Performance Of Commercial Layers Maintained In Chakwal 126
146.78 KB
  Abstract 126
  Introduction 126
  Materials And Method 128
  Determination Of Sample Size 128
  Data Collection 128
  Measurements 128
  Data Analyses 129
  Results And Discussion 129
  Flock Sizes Rate Of Culling 129
  Mortality 131
  Feed Consumption And Feed Efficiency 132
  Egg Production Performance 132
  Cost Of Production, Gross Return And Net Profit Per Layer 133
  Conclusions And Recommendations 135
  References 135
13 12 Summary Conclusions And Recommendation 138
131.45 KB
  Summary 138
  Flock Size And Rate Of Culling 139
  Feed Consumption And Feed Efficiency 139
  Egg Production Performance 139
  Discuses Prevalence And Mortality Rate 141
  Cost Of Production, Gross Return And Net Profit Per Layer 143
  Predicted Standard Limits For Traits Of Economic Importance 145
  Use Of Recursive And Simultaneous Models For Estimating Relationship Amongst Various Endogenous Variables In Egg Production Enterprise 145
  Conclusions 146
  Recommendations 147