Durrani, Muhammad Farooq (2002) PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMIC APPRAISAL OF COMMERCIAL LAYERS IN DISTRICT CHAKWAL. PhD thesis, NWFP Agriculture University, Peshawar.
This study was carried out in Chakwal, Pakistan by collecting data on feed consumption, egg production, mortality, culling, cost of production and gross return from 109 randomly selectred layer flocks after predicting sample size during 2000 and 2001. The findings are based on an average of 52.5 weeks of growth and production, including 42 days brooding, 84 days growing and 241 days of laying period. Average number of day-old chicks started was 13063+1321, out of which 93.59% were housed in egg laying houses. Mean feed consumption per layer was 37.01 0.55 kg, comprising 1.16 0.02 kg startet, 4.17 0.05 kg grower, and 31.67 0.56 kg layer ration. Mean feed efficiency in terms of kg of layer ration consumed/dozen eggs, was 2.05 0.04. Average peak percent lay, percent lay and hen-day and hen-housed egg production was 92.130.34% 69.33 0.51% and 205.74 3.61, and 185.57 3.60 eggs, respectively. Loss due to various diseases and of unknown etiology were 6.67% and 2% respectively. Coccidiosis was the major problem causing 19.14$ losses. About 2.77% birds were culled from the flock over the whole period. Average total cost of production, gross return and net profit per layer was Rs.393.93 35.48 and Rs.432.14 36.23 and Rs.38.21 12.39, respectively. Layers kept on the floor consumed more feed (32.8 0.87 kg) and give smaller net profit per bird compared to those kept in cages (30.6 0.62 kg). Predicted critical minimum limit worked out for number hens to be housed in egg laying house, peak percent lay, percent lay and hen-day egg production was 3712 birds, 86.10% 61.01% and 185.96 eggs, respectively. Proportion of culled eggs was 3.74 0.01% including 1.03 0.01 thin-shelled and 2.71 0.02% broken eggs. Incidence of broken eggs was higher (3.80 0.70%) on floor than in cages (1.62 0.02%). Maximum critical limit calculated for mortality, feed efficiency, age at point-of-lay, age at peak-of-lay egg laying period and cost of production was 14.61% 2.49 kg, 132.84 days, 182.96 days 255 days and Rs.408.58, respectively. No heteroscedasticity was found for the estimated models, however use of such models being casual in nature didnÃÂÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂÃÂÃÂt take the whole production process as one entity rather than independent activities. The simultancous equations developed that most of the exogenous and endogenous variable(s) were interdependent and study of these veriable(s) in a system of equations was helpful for better prediction of the variables of economic importance. It was concluded, that increase in flock size and number of eggs produced per farm would increase while increase in mortality rate and cost of production per egg would decrease net farm income obtained from commercial eg type layer. Thus, it provided guidelines for the producer to arrive at important decisions in further and exhaust remedies other than egg price for improving profitability. In addition, efficient planning for the product to avail anticipated higher prices in the market would be another option for the producer to follow keeping in view seasonal trends in egg consumption in the country.
|Item Type:||Thesis (PhD)|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||commercial layers, egg production, feed consumption, stocking rate|
|Subjects:||Agriculture & Veterinary Sciences(a)|
|Deposited By:||Mr. Muhammad Asif|
|Deposited On:||11 Aug 2006|
|Last Modified:||04 Oct 2007 21:01|
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