|Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
islam, central asia, turkestan, persia, holy quran, calip, imam abu hanifah, al-khwarizmi, ibn sina, al-biruni, imam ahmed ibn hanbal, ibrahim adham, al-bukhari, bahauddin naqshband, uzbekistan, turkmenistan, tajikistan, kyrgyzstan, kazakhstan
Central Asia, also known as Turkestan, is a vast landlocked region of Asia. Though various definitions of its exact composition exist, no one definition is universally accepted. Despite this uncertainty in defining borders, it does have some important overall characteristics. For one, Central Asia has historically been closely tied to its nomadic peoples and the Silk Road. So, it has acted as a crossroads for the movement of people, goods, and ideas between Europe, the Middle East, South Asia, and East Asia. Now it consists of Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. Central Asia has long been a strategic location merely because of its proximity to several great powers on the Eurasian landmass. Islam is the religion most common in the region.
The Muslims first entered Mawarannahr in the middle of the seventh century through raids during their conquest of Persia. Under Islamic rule, Central Asia was an important centre of culture and trade for centuries. Bukhoro became one of the leading centres of learning, culture, and art in the Muslim world, its magnificence rivalling contemporaneous cultural centres such as Baghdad, Cairo, and Cordoba. Some of the greatest historians, scientists, and geographers in the history of Islamic culture were natives of the region, and one of the copies of the Holy Quran originally prepared in the time of Caliph Uthman is kept in Tashkent.
The new Islamic spiritual and political situation in Central Asia determined a new technological and cultural progress. Scientists such as Al-Khwarizmi (783-847): mathematician, called “the Father of Algebra”, Beruni, Al-Farabi (878-950): called “the Second Aristotle”, Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (980-1037): philosopher, physician, and poet, called “the Prince of Philosophers” and Al-Biruni (973-1048): philosopher, geographer, and mathematician brought fame to the area all over the world, generating respect across the world, and many scientific achievements of the epoch made a great impact on the European science (it is enough to mention the astronomical tables of Samarkand astronomers from Ulughbek's observatory). During the comparatively peaceful era of Islamic rule, culture and the arts flourished in Central Asia.
Other prominent Central Asian personalities are Imam Abu Hanifah An-nu'man Ibn Thabit, Muslim jurist and theologian whose systematization of Islamic legal doctrine and acknowledged as one of the four canonical schools of Islamic law, Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal, the founder of the Hanbali school of jurisprudence, Ibrahim Adham, Al-Bukhari, compiler of an important selection of Muslim “Hadith” and Bahauddin Naqshband, founder of the Naqshbandiya Sufism.