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Title of Thesis

Syed Abdul Siraj
Institute/University/Department Details
Bahauddin Zikkariyya University/ Department Of Mass Communication
Mass Communication
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
television, distance learning, education, educational television, distance education, distant teaching, aiou, tv programs, semester, tv broadcast

This study investigates the "Role of TV for Distance Education in Pakistan: TV as a Supplementary Source of Learning-Students' Perspective" through a social survey design using mailed questionnaire for collecting data from the BA level students of AIOU. The data was analyzed through univariate and multivariate statistical procedures. Univariate distribution was adopted for describing students' perception on the phenomenon. Whereas, correlational statistics using elaboration paradigm was adopted for measuring the relationship between exposure to TV programs and performance of students in assignments and examination on the zero order as well as partial "rs" controlling for the effects of the test variables; viz, perceived students' expectations and gratification from exposure, interest, suitability of day, time, and duration of TV programs, perceived suitability, relevancy, compatibility, and helpfulness of TV programs' contents, motivational capacity of the programs, post exposure activities of the students, integratedness of the TV program with text, tutorial, assignments and examination, perception of TV programs' format and presentation, and demographics.

The study addressed the question "Whether and to what extent AIOU TV programs influence performance of the AIOU BA students?" The major hypothesis of the study was "Higher the number of TV programs watched, better the performance of students. The investigation was carried out keeping in view the main objectives of the study; i.e., i. To analyze and document the impact of television on students' performance in assignments and final examination; and ii. To develop a paradigm to provide guidelines for distance educational institutions using television for educational activities.

The relationship on the zero order 'rs' between number of TV programs watched and performance was significant at p < 0.05 level with both assignments and examination in the course, "Food and Nutrition" code 484. That is, higher the exposure, better the performance of students in both the performance criteria of the course 484. However, the relationship was found in hypothesized direction only with the students' performance in assignments for the courses 416 and 484. No relationship could be found in the performance criteria in the course "Economics" 402.

Similarly, the specified relationship between students' gender and residence groups on, the zero order 'rs' of exposure and performance was found significant with the performance of female rural students in the course 484 and with the performance of female rural and urban students in assignments for the course 485. Likewise, exposure was related to performance of male students in the assignments and examination of the courses 416 and 485 respectively: The hypothesized relationship also did not hold up with any of the performance criteria of the course 402. Almost same results were found in the partial "rs" controlling for the effects of the test variables on the zero order and specified for .students' gender and residence groups.

The non-existence of relationship between exposure and performance in the course 402 is due to the fact that majority of students did not watch TV programs. One of the reasons is the unsuitability of broadcast day and airtime. Whereas, the relationship was correlated (though not very strong) with the performance criteria of the courses 484 and 485 because television programs for most of these courses were telecast on Sundays and Fridays as being the holidays and half days in the government and private offices.

In the AIOU's teaching system, students concentrate mostly on the provided textbooks. Since these textbooks cover both assignments and examination, students do not take TV programs seriously into account as most of the TV programs are not integrated with the assignments and final examination couple with other reasons. Consequently, students' exposure to AIOU TV programs is very low and in some cases very discouraging, particularly, TV is usually ignored as a source of learning where textbooks explain the concepts and learning points in understandable and easy language. This might be the reason in the case of the course "Economics" 402

Students' low exposure to TV programs was mainly due to the unsuitability of airtime and broadcast day. Students demanded for weekly re-telecast of the TV programs. Besides, students also wanted to have TV programs watched at the beginning and before submitting of the assignments as majority of students like to write assignments after watching TV programs. The study revealed that most of the students attend tutorial meetings during the semester but "they occasionally discuss TV programs with the teacher and students. Those students who did not attend tutorials opined that TV programs made up the deficiency to some extent for the missed tutorials. The overall quality of the TV programs in the selected courses was average as opined by the students. Quality and even contents of the programs, therefore, did not matter in ensuring great academic benefit of the students. Since these programs, along with other reasons, had no integration with the AIOU teaching modes, they did not attract students at a larger scale.

Download Full Thesis
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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 Contents
166.62 KB
2 1 Introduction
350.52 KB
  1.1 Statement Of The Problem 1
  1.2 Objectives Of The Study 2
  1.3 Significance Of The Study 3
  1.4 Television And Education 5
  1.5 Television In Pakistan 9
  1.6 The Philosophy And Practice Of Distance Education 11
  1.7 An Overview Of AIOU, As A Distance Teaching Institution 21
  1.8 Theories And Practice Of Distance Education With Reference To AIOU 24
  1.9 Existing Research In Distance Teaching 26
3 2 Literature Review
378.78 KB
  2.1 Introduction 30
  2.2 Early Research On Educational Television 31
  2.3 Methods Of TV Research 32
  2.4 Evaluation Of Educational Television 33
  2.5 Piaget's Theory For Intelligence Development 37
  2.6 Television Beyond The Piaget's Theories 38
  2.7 Learning From Television 39
  2.8 Effects Of Television On Students' Performance 41
  2.9 Contents Of Educational Television 47
  2.10 Instructional Television In El Salvador 's Education Reform 49
  2.11 Factors Contributing To Television Exposure 51
  2.12 Television Viewing And Mental Aptitude 53
  2.13 Psychological Effects Of Television 55
  2.14 Televisions And IQ 57
  2.15 Television Program Format And Production 57
4 3 Research Methodology
268.84 KB
  3.1 Survey Research Design 60
  3.2 Major Research Question 60
  3.3 Main Hypothesis 60
  3.4 Variables 61
  3.5 Key Concepts And Operational Definitions 61
  3.6 The Universe/Population 64
  3.7 Sample Size 64
  3.8 Sampling Methods 64
  3.9 Characteristics Of The Population 66
  3.10 Distribution Of Students/Sample Profile 67
  3.11 Framing Questions For Questionnaire 71
  3.12 Pre-Testing The Questionnaire 73
  3.13 Data Collection 73
  3.14 Problems Faced 74
  3.15 Data Coding And Data Reduction 74
  3.16 Computer Application In This Research 75
  3.17 Statistics Used 75
  3.18 Data Analysis Chart 78
5 4 Data Analysis-Part 1
1169.18 KB
  4.1 Univariate Analysis 82
  4.2 Students Liking And Disliking Of The AIOU Teaching Modes 82
  4.3 Places For Watching AIOU TV Programs 85
  4.4 Students Knowledge About AIOU TV Programs Schedule 86
  4.5 Number Of TV Programs Watched By Students 86
  4.6 Reasons For Not Having Watched AIOU TV Programs 89
  4.7 Re-Telecasting Of AIOU TV Programs During Semester 90
  4.8 Students' Need To Watch TV Programs During Semester 91
  4.9 Suitability Of AIOU TV Broadcast Day, Time, And Duration 91
  4.10 Students' Habit For Watching AIOU TV Programs 96
  4.11 Writing Assignments Before And After Watching TV Programs 96
  4.12 Attendance Of Tutorials And Discussion On TV Programs 98
  4.13 Overall Quality Of The TV Programs In The BA Courses 99
  Data Analysis-Part II
  4.14 Multivariate Analysis 102
  4.15 Zero Order " Rs " Of Exposure To TV Programs And Performance In The BA Courses, Specified For Gender And Residences 102
  4.16 Exposure-Performance Relationship, Controlling For Perceived Expectations Of AIOU TV Programs 104
  4.17 Exposure-Performance Relationship, Controlling For Perceived Students' Gratification Items Obtained From AIOU TV Programs 108
  4.18 Exposure-Performance Relationship, Controlling For Perceived Students' Interest 112
  4.19 Exposure-Performance Relationship, Controlling For Perceived Suitability Of Broadcast Day, Time And Duration 115
  4.20 Exposure-Performance Relationship, Controlling For Perceived Programs' Contents 120
  4.21 Exposure-Performance Relationship, Controlling For Perceived Motivation And Post-Exposure Activities 131
  4.22 Exposure-Performance Relationship, Controlling For Perceived Integration Of TV With The Teaching Methodology 135
  4.23 Exposure-Performance Relationship, Controlling For TV Program Presentation 150
  4.24 Exposure-Performance Relationship, Controlling For Perceived Quality Of AIOU TV Programs 154
6 5 Discussion Of Results, Conclusion, And Recommendations
333.01 KB
  5.1 Introduction 158
  5.2 Students' Perceptions Of TV Programs ( Univariate Analysis) 158
  5.3 Exposure-Performance Relationship (Multivariate Analysis) 163
  5.4 Conclusion 179
  5.5 Suggestions/Recommendations 182
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