I= PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN
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Title of Thesis
PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN

Author(s)
Aleem Iqbal
Institute/University/Department Details
University Of Arid Agriculture/Institute Of Education And Research
Session
2004
Subject
Education
Number of Pages
303
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
higher education, universities, academic standards, developmental indicators, examination, governance, academic results

Abstract
The purpose of the study was to investigate the problems and prospects of higher education in Pakistan. Higher education plays the role of leadership in the society. The functions of the university are to develop the people physically, mentally and spiritually. It improves and promotes the economic, social, political and cultural life of the nation. All over the world universities are guiding and co-operating with the industrial and agricultural development organizations and they are developing their economics rapidly and meaningfully. In Pakistan, after more than five decades, the developmental indicators are not showing positive results. The participation rate at higher education is about three percent of age group (17-23) and this is 16.2 percent as world average of this age group. The advanced countries are achieving more than 40 percent participation rate in higher education. There are problems of quality of staff, students, library and laboratory. Relevance with society needs, research facilities, financial crisis, arts students more than science students, weaknesses of examination, ineffective governance and academic results are not at par with international standards. Considering the gigantic problems of higher education in Pakistan, the researcher selected this topic for research. The main objectives of the study were: (1) determining the present profile of higher education in Pakistan; (2) examining the past efforts done for the improvement of higher education; (4) highlighting the budget provisions for higher education; and (5) exploring problems of higher education in Pakistan.

Experts dealing with education in the Ministry of Education, Ministry of Science and Technology, Higher Education Commission, Provincial Departments of Education, university teachers, university administrators, planners, examination experts, university students and community leaders constituted the population of the study. Eight universities were selected randomly for the sample. Twenty university teachers and forty students from each university were included in the sample. Thirty community leaders and fifty experts were also included in the sample. Four questionnaires were developed after pilot testing for the collection of data.

The data were collected by the researcher personally. He made many efforts for collection of data from the experts, leaders, teachers and students. Data were tabulated and analyzed using the Likert's five-point scale and chi-square. After drawing the conclusions, some workable recommendations were made for the improvement of relevance, quality, finances, effectiveness and access of higher education in Pakistan. Following conclusions were drawn from responses. (i) access was very limited in universities. (ii) quality was very low in the fields of academic, administration, research and equipment. (iii) faculty and staff need development in knowledge and skills. (iv) funds were provided inadequate and misappropriation was common. (v) character building of the students was ignored. (vi) there was no linkage between university and industry. (vii) examination system was faulty. (viii) good governance was non-existent. (ix) private sector was expanding without merit. Following recommendations were made on the basis of conclusions: (i) Enrolment in universities should be increased by providing adequate all types of educational facilities. (ii) Quality of faculty, staff, students, library, laboratory, research and equipment should be enhanced. (iii) Development of faculty and staff should be ensured through meaningful continuous in-service training. (iv) Funds for higher education should be increased reasonably. (v) Character building of students should be focused. (vi) Linkage between university and industry should be established. (vii) Good governance should be ensured. (ix) More open universities should be established. (x) New disciplines should be started to meet the need of the market. (xi) Night classes should be started with transport facilities. (xii) Summer vacations should be banned. (xiii) Political activities should not be allowed. (xiv) Rules and regulations should be enforced forcefully.

Download Full Thesis
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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 1 Introduction 01
120.67 KB
2 2 Review Of Literature 12
1235.53 KB
  2.1 Higher Education In Historical 12
  2.2 Establishment Of Universities 12
  2.3 Growth Of Universities 1857-1902 14
  2.4 The Calcutta University Commission 16
  2.5 Creation Of New Universities 1887-1936 20
  2.6 Creation Of New Universities 1937-47 22
  2.7 University Objectives In The Changing 26
  2.8 Two Approaches To The Management Of Higher Education 26
  2.9 The Role Of The University 28
  2.9.1 National Objectives 29
  2.9.2 International Objectives 30
  2.10 Objectives Of Higher Education 31
  2.10.1 Robbins Committee 1963 33
  2.10.2 The Dearing Report 1997 33
  2.10.3 The Purposes Of Higher Education In 34
  2.10.4 Dominant Concepts Of Higher Education 34
  2.11 The Essence Of Higher Education 35
  2.12 Functions Of Higher Education 40
  2.13 Major Objectives Of Higher Education 42
  2.14 University Education In Pakistan 1947 46
  2.15 Key Issues 47
  2.16 Vision Of Higher Education 48
  2.17 Four Pivotal Issues Of Higher Education 48
  2.18 Issues And Problems Of University 57
  2.18.1 Deteriorating Academic Standards 57
  2.18.2 Quality Of Control 58
  2.18.3 Research As A Neglected Field 58
  2.18.4 Improper Planning 58
  2.18.5 Lack Of Finances 59
  2.18.6 No Outreach Activities 59
  2.18.7 Politics Of Indiscipline 59
  2.19 Goals Of Reform And Innovation 59
  2.19.1 Comprehensive Universities 60
  2.19.2 Open Universities 60
  2.19.3 Inter Disciplinarity 60
  2.19.4 Accountability 61
  2.19.5 Administrative Rationality 62
  2.19.6 The Curriculum 62
  2.19.7 Democratization And Participation 63
  2.19.8 Quality Of Students 64
  2.19.9 Subject Distribution 64
  2.19.10 Quality Of Equipment 65
  2.19.11 The Professoriate 65
  2.19.12 Miscellaneous Innovations 65
  2.20 Proposals For The Improvement 66
  2.20.1 Access 69
  2.20.2 Financing 70
  2.20.3 Relationship Between Government 70
  2.20.4 The Role Of Higher Education In Developing Science And Technology 70
  2.20.5 The Role Of Evaluation 71
  2.20.6 Conclusion 71
  2.21 Quality In Universities 73
  2.22 Plight Of Education In Pakistan 76
  2.23 Restructuring Of Higher Education 1969 77
  2.24 University Education In 1979 81
  2.25 Recommendations Of Draft Policy On Higher Education 1998 85
  2.26 Higher Education In Pakistan A Case For Change 95
  2.27 Problems Of Higher Education, 1969 99
  2.28 Higher Education 1972 99
  2.29 Main Issues Of Higher Education 100
  2.29.1 Design, Development And Delivery Of Services Are Problematic 101
  2.29.2 The Lack Of Success And Low Productivity In Research In Pakistan 102
  2.30 Challenges Of Higher Education 1998 104
  2.30.1 Faculty Development 108
  2.30.2 Research 109
  2.30.3 Funding 110
  2.31 The University System In Pakistan 111
  2.31.1 Relationship Of Universities To Government 114
  2.31.2 University Funding 116
  2.31.3 Staff 120
  2.31.4 Students 126
  2.31.5 Finance 127
  2.32 Priority Areas Of Higher Education 130
  2.33 Characteristics Of Twenty First Century 130
3 3 Research Methodology 132
46.38 KB
  3.1 Population 132
  3.2 Sample 132
  3.3 Research Instruments 134
  3.4 Pilot Testing 134
  3.5 Data Collection 135
  3.6 Data Analysis 135
4 4 Results And Discussion 138
983.97 KB
5 5 Summary 276
70.45 KB
  5.1 Conclusions 277
  5.2 Recommendations 281
6 6 Literature Citied 284
33.95 KB
7 7 Appendices
172.83 KB
  7.1 Appendix I 288
  7.2 Appendix Ii 293
  7.3 Appendix Iii 296
  7.4 Appendix Iv 300
  7.5 Appendix V 302