I= INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT OF FRUIT FLIES (TEPHRITIDAE: DIPTERA) IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
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Title of Thesis
INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT OF FRUIT FLIES (TEPHRITIDAE: DIPTERA) IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

Author(s)
Muhammad Ahsan Khan
Institute/University/Department Details
University Of Agriculture/Agri. Entomology
Session
2002
Subject
Agricultural Entomology
Number of Pages
158
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
pest management, fruit flies, tephritidae diptera, infestation, abiotic factors, methyl euginol, cue lure

Abstract
Studies were carried out on Integrated Pest Management of fruit flies (Tephritidae; Diptera) in Punjab, Pakistan during the year 1998 to 2001. Four fruits viz., apple, ber, guava and mango at four localities like Murree, Faisalabad, Sheikhupura and Multan, respectively were selected. Population monitoring and fruit infestation studies were conducted by installing methyl euginol and cue lure traps for two years. The second year collection was identified. The data on infestation percentage were recorded by iron ring method. The role of abiotic factors in population fluctuation and infestation was determined by computing the data for multivariate models and PCA. Integrated approach for the management of fruit files was applied on guava fruit, which was infested the maximum through population monitoring studies, by applying various control measures viz., hoeing, baiting, use of sex pheromone and chemical application. Methyl euginol was selected as it showed maximum fruit fly catches from population monitoring studies. The insecticide Diptrex 80 SP @ 1 gm/1 litre water was sprayed four times at one month interval while other control measures were repeated fortnightly. The cotton wicks were changed fortnightly in methyl euginol traps. Similarly wooden plates having baiting material were, also changed fortnightly. The results arc summarized as follows:

Low population of fruit flies was recorded on apple at Murree Hills ranged from minimum of 0.37 to maximum of 1.62/trap/day on October 1 and August 1, respectively.

The 2nd fortnight of February and the 1st fortnight of March was crucial for 'ber' fruits which showed maximum catches of fruit flies whereas for guava fruits the months of August and September were important. Similarly the months of July and August showed maximum adult catches of fruit flies in mango orchards.

Second fortnight of August and 1st fortnight of September showed maximum population trapped by pheromones in guava orchards.

In case of mango fruits, maximum adult catches were found on September 15 and did not differ significantly from those of recorded on October 1.

The population of fruit flies remained present throughout the fruiting season from flowering to maturity of all the fruits.

The maximum infestation of fruit flies in apple orchards was recorded to be 4.61 % on October 1 and was statistically at par with 4.53 and 4.51 % recorded on September 15 and October 15, respectively.

The maximum infestation was recorded to be 14.72% on March 1 in 'ber' orchards followed by 11.33 and 10.26% on February 15 and March 15, respectively.

Guava fruit affected maximum showing maximum infestation i.e. 7.56% followed by 5.66, 5.32 and 2.39% on 'ber', mango and apple, respectively.

The methyl euginol traps showed maximum adult of fruit flies in all the fruit orchards located in Murree, Faisalabad, Sheikhupura and Multan during two fruiting years.

Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) was dominant on apple, (Corpomya incompleta (Becker), was dominant on 'ber' and B. zonata was dominant both on guava and mango.

B. dorsalis also found very serious for guava with 46.37% existence. Similarly B. zonata, C. vesuviana and B. cucurbitae were at 2nd place and found serious for apple, 'ber' and mango, respectively.

Maximum numbers of species of fruit flies were recorded in apple orchards followed by guava.

The correlation between population and infestation percentage of fruit flies was non-significant in apple orchards whereas a positive and highly significant correlation was found in between population and infestation in 'ber', guava and mango orchards during both the seasonal years of each fruit as well as on cumulative basis.

The weather factors have some significant contribution towards population fluctuation and infestation percentage of fruit flies in apple, guava and mango orchards whereas; in the orchards of 'ber' these factors played non-significant contribution towards fluctuation in population and infestation. All the weather factors, when computed together, contributed maximum towards population fluctuation and infestation.

Rainfall appeared as the most important factor for population fluctuation and infestation with 92.87, 68.13, 87.90, and 69.21 percent variance for apple, 'ber', guava and mango fruits, respectively.

On an average of both year studies, weather factors did not play significant role towards population fluctuation whereas infestation percentage affected significantly by temperatures and relative humidity with positive responses. The R2 values were 0.174 and 0.209 for population and infestation when all the weather factors computed together.

Rainfall proved to be the most important factor with positive response in combination with contrasting behavior of temperature showing 85.96 percent variance.

All the control measures viz., hoeing, baiting, pheromone traps and use of chemical (Diptrex 80 SP @ 1 gm/1 litre water) showed the lowest infestation of fruit flies i.e., 2.44% in guava orchards followed by 2.86% in combination of hoeing + pheromone + use of chemical.

The infestation level of 5.39% was recorded in combination of hoeing, baiting and use of pheromone as against 29.34% infestation in control. Thus infestation can be decreased up to 81.63% in the absence of chemical application.

The months of August and September showed maximum infestation (11.38 to 15.36%) in guava orchards.

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1384.05 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
180.39 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
26.92 KB
3 2 Review Of Literature 4
142.06 KB
  2.1 Population Dynamics/abundance 4
  2.2 Role of Abiotic Factors in Population Fluctuation of Fruit Flies 7
  2.3 Male Sex Pheromones/Attractants 8
  2.4 Cultural Control 14
  2.5 Chemical Control 14
  2.6 Integration of various Control Measures 17
4 3 Materials And Methods 19
93.97 KB
  3.1 Study Area-Climate 19
  3.1.1 Murree Hills (District Rawalpindi ) 19
  3.1.2 Faisalabad 21
  3.1.3 Sheikhupura 22
  3.1.4 Multan 22
  3.2 Population Dynamics 22
  3.3 Infestation 23
  3.4 Statistical Analysis 23
  3.5 Role of Weather Factors in Fluctuating Fruit flies Population 23
  3.5.1 Meteorological Observations 23
  3.5.2 Statistical Correlations 24
  3.6 Identification 24
  3.7 Integrated Management of Fruit Flies on Guava 25
  3.7.1 Hoeing 27
  3.7.2 Mass Trapping with Methyl Euginol 27
  3.7.3 Baiting 27
  3.7.4 Chemical Control 28
  3.7.5 Data Collection 28
  3.7.6 Data Analysis 28
5 4 Results 29
753.43 KB
  4.1 Population Counts 29
  4.1.1 Apple Orchards ( Murree ) 29
  4.1.1.1 Period of Abundance 31
  4.1.1.1.1 During 1998 31
  4.1.1.1.2 During 1999 31
  4.1.1.1.3 During 1998 and 1999 (Average) 31
  4.1.1.2 Population Monitoring by Traps 33
  4.1.1.2.1 During 1998 33
  4.1.1.2.2 During 1999 35
  4.1.1.2.3 During 1998 and 1999 (Average) 35
  4.1.2 Ber Orchards ( Faisalabad ) 37
  4.1.2.1 Period of Abundance 37
  4.1.2.1.1 During1998-99 37
  4.1.2.1.2 During 1999-2000 39
  4.1.2.1.3 During 1998-99 and 1999-2000 (Average) 39
  4.1.2.2 Population Monitoring by Traps 39
  4.1.2.2.1 During 1998-99 42
  4.1.2.2.2 During 1999-2000 42
  4.1.2.2.3 During 1998-99 and 1999-2000 (Average) 43
  4.1.3 Guava Orchards ( Sheikhupura ) 45
  4.1.3.1 Period of Abundance 45
  4.1.3.1.1 During 1998 45
  4.1.3.1.2 During 1999 48
  4.1.3.1.3 During 1998 and 1999 (Average) 48
  4.1.3.2 Population Monitoring by Traps 49
  4.1.3.2.1 During 1998 49
  4.1.3.2.2 During 1999 51
  4.1.3.2.3 During 1998 and 1999 (Average) 52
  4.1.4 Mango Orchards 54
  4.1.4.1 Period of Abundance 54
  4.1.4.1.1 During 1998 54
  4.1.4.1.2 During 1999 57
  4.1.4.1.3 During 1998 and 1999 (Average) 57
  4.1.4.2 Population Monitoring Through Traps 57
  4.1.4.2.1 During 1998 59
  4.1.4.2.2 During 1999 59
  4.1.4.2.3 During 1998 and 1999 (Average) 60
  4.2 Fruit Infestation Caused by Fruit Flies 61
  4.2.1 Apple Fruit 61
  4.2.1.1 During 1998 61
  4.2.1.2 During 1999 61
  4.2.1.3 Average Infestation (1998 and 1999) 64
  4.2.2 Ber Fruit 64
  4.2.2.1 During 1998-99 64
  4.2.2.2 During 1999-2000 67
  4.2.2.3 Average Infestation (1998-99 and 1999- 2000) 67
  4.2.3 Guava Fruit 67
  4.2.3.1 During 1998 68
  4.2.3.2 During 1999 68
  4.2.3.3 Average Infestation (1998 and 1999) 68
  4.2.4 Mango Fruit 71
  4.2.4.1 During 1998 71
  4.2.4.2 During 1999 71
  4.2.4.3 Average Infestation (1998 and 1999) 71
  4.3 Percent Existence of Fruit Flies Versus Infestation 75
  4.4 Species of Fruit Flies found Damaging Different Fruits at various Localities 77
  4.5 Graphical Presentation of Weather Factors, Population of Fruit Flies per Trap per Day and Infestation Percentage of Fruits on different Dates of Observation during Study Years 79
  4.5.1 Apple Fruit ( Murree ) 79
  4.5.1.1 During 1998 79
  4.5.1.2 During 1999 79
  4.5.2 Ber Fruit ( Faisalabad ) 82
  4.5.2.1 During 1998-1999 82
  4.5.2.2 During 1999-2000 82
  4.5.3 Guava Fruit ( Sheikhupura ) 85
  4.5.3.1 During 1998 85
  4.5.3.2 During 1999 85
  4.5.4 Mango Fruit ( Multan ) 88
  4.5.4.1 During 1998 88
  4.5.4.2 During 1999 88
  4.6 Comparison between Population Catches and Fruits Infestation 1
  4.7 Correlation between Trapped Population of Fruit Flies and Fruits Infestation at various Localities 93
  4.7 Role of Abiotic Factors on Trapped Population of Fruit Flies and Infestation 96
  4.8.1 Apple Fruit 96
  4.8.1.1 Simple Correlation 96
  4.8.1.2 Multivariate Models 98
  4.8.1.3 Principal Component Ana1vsis (PCA) 98
  4.8.2 Ber Fruit 99
  4.8.2.1 Simple Correlation 99
  4.8.2.2 Multivariate Regression Models 101
  4.8.2.3 Principal Component Analysis (PCA) 101
  4.8.3 Guava Fruit 102
  4.8.3.1 Simple Correlation 102
  4.8.3.2 Multivariate Regression Models 104
  4 4.8.3 Principal Component Analysis (PAC) 104
  4.8.4 Mango Fruit 105
  4.8.4.1 Simple Correlation 105
  4.8.4.2 Multivariate Regression Models 107
  4.8.4.3 Principal Component Analysis (PCA) 107
  4.8.5 Overall Effect of Abiotic Factors on the Population/Trap/Day and Infestation Percentage 109
  4.8.5.1 Simple Correlation 109
  4.8.5.2 Multivariate Regression Models 109
  4.8.5.3 Principal Component Analysis (PCA) 109
  4.9 Integrated Management of Fruit Flies in Guava Orchards 112
  4.9.1 Treatment Effect in Term of Fruit Infestation 112
  4.9.2 Infestation Fluctuation 116
6 5 Discussion 117
158.12 KB
  5.1 Summary 128
7 6 Literature Cited 132
75.79 KB
8 7 Appendices 138
157.21 KB