Khan, Muhammad Ahsan (2002) INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT OF FRUIT FLIES (TEPHRITIDAE: DIPTERA) IN PUNJAB, PAKISTAN. PhD thesis, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
Studies were carried out on Integrated Pest Management of fruit flies (Tephritidae; Diptera) in Punjab, Pakistan during the year 1998 to 2001. Four fruits viz., apple, ber, guava and mango at four localities like Murree, Faisalabad, Sheikhupura and Multan, respectively were selected. Population monitoring and fruit infestation studies were conducted by installing methyl euginol and cue lure traps for two years. The second year collection was identified. The data on infestation percentage were recorded by iron ring method. The role of abiotic factors in population fluctuation and infestation was determined by computing the data for multivariate models and PCA. Integrated approach for the management of fruit files was applied on guava fruit, which was infested the maximum through population monitoring studies, by applying various control measures viz., hoeing, baiting, use of sex pheromone and chemical application. Methyl euginol was selected as it showed maximum fruit fly catches from population monitoring studies. The insecticide Diptrex 80 SP @ 1 gm/1 litre water was sprayed four times at one month interval while other control measures were repeated fortnightly. The cotton wicks were changed fortnightly in methyl euginol traps. Similarly wooden plates having baiting material were, also changed fortnightly. The results arc summarized as follows: Low population of fruit flies was recorded on apple at Murree Hills ranged from minimum of 0.37 to maximum of 1.62/trap/day on October 1 and August 1, respectively. The 2nd fortnight of February and the 1st fortnight of March was crucial for 'ber' fruits which showed maximum catches of fruit flies whereas for guava fruits the months of August and September were important. Similarly the months of July and August showed maximum adult catches of fruit flies in mango orchards. Second fortnight of August and 1st fortnight of September showed maximum population trapped by pheromones in guava orchards. In case of mango fruits, maximum adult catches were found on September 15 and did not differ significantly from those of recorded on October 1. The population of fruit flies remained present throughout the fruiting season from flowering to maturity of all the fruits. The maximum infestation of fruit flies in apple orchards was recorded to be 4.61 % on October 1 and was statistically at par with 4.53 and 4.51 % recorded on September 15 and October 15, respectively. The maximum infestation was recorded to be 14.72% on March 1 in 'ber' orchards followed by 11.33 and 10.26% on February 15 and March 15, respectively. Guava fruit affected maximum showing maximum infestation i.e. 7.56% followed by 5.66, 5.32 and 2.39% on 'ber', mango and apple, respectively. The methyl euginol traps showed maximum adult of fruit flies in all the fruit orchards located in Murree, Faisalabad, Sheikhupura and Multan during two fruiting years. Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) was dominant on apple, (Corpomya incompleta (Becker), was dominant on 'ber' and B. zonata was dominant both on guava and mango. B. dorsalis also found very serious for guava with 46.37% existence. Similarly B. zonata, C. vesuviana and B. cucurbitae were at 2nd place and found serious for apple, 'ber' and mango, respectively. Maximum numbers of species of fruit flies were recorded in apple orchards followed by guava. The correlation between population and infestation percentage of fruit flies was non-significant in apple orchards whereas a positive and highly significant correlation was found in between population and infestation in 'ber', guava and mango orchards during both the seasonal years of each fruit as well as on cumulative basis. The weather factors have some significant contribution towards population fluctuation and infestation percentage of fruit flies in apple, guava and mango orchards whereas; in the orchards of 'ber' these factors played non-significant contribution towards fluctuation in population and infestation. All the weather factors, when computed together, contributed maximum towards population fluctuation and infestation. Rainfall appeared as the most important factor for population fluctuation and infestation with 92.87, 68.13, 87.90, and 69.21 percent variance for apple, 'ber', guava and mango fruits, respectively. On an average of both year studies, weather factors did not play significant role towards population fluctuation whereas infestation percentage affected significantly by temperatures and relative humidity with positive responses. The R2 values were 0.174 and 0.209 for population and infestation when all the weather factors computed together. Rainfall proved to be the most important factor with positive response in combination with contrasting behavior of temperature showing 85.96 percent variance. All the control measures viz., hoeing, baiting, pheromone traps and use of chemical (Diptrex 80 SP @ 1 gm/1 litre water) showed the lowest infestation of fruit flies i.e., 2.44% in guava orchards followed by 2.86% in combination of hoeing + pheromone + use of chemical. The infestation level of 5.39% was recorded in combination of hoeing, baiting and use of pheromone as against 29.34% infestation in control. Thus infestation can be decreased up to 81.63% in the absence of chemical application. The months of August and September showed maximum infestation (11.38 to 15.36%) in guava orchards.
|Item Type:||Thesis (PhD)|
|Uncontrolled Keywords:||pest management, fruit flies, tephritidae diptera, infestation, abiotic factors, methyl euginol, cue lure|
|Subjects:||Agriculture & Veterinary Sciences(a) > Agriculture(a1)|
|Deposited By:||Mr. Muhammad Asif|
|Deposited On:||03 Aug 2006|
|Last Modified:||04 Oct 2007 21:00|
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