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Title of Thesis

Public Participation In Environmental Impact Assessment Of Development Projects In Punjab, Pakistan

Author(s)

Obaidullah Nadeem

Institute/University/Department Details
Department Of City & Regional Planning / University Of Engineering And Technology, Lahore
Session
2010
Subject
City & Regional Planning
Number of Pages
338
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
Public, Participation, Environmental, Impact, Assessment, Development, Projects, Punjab, Pakistan, Empirical, stakeholders, framework

Abstract
Evaluating the effectiveness of public participation in terms of its influence on EIA related decisions has been increasingly suggested in the literature. In Pakistan, public is involved during EIA of projects likely to cause adverse environmental and socioeconomic impacts. Empirical evidence to establish the extent to which it is achieving its objectives of making widely acceptable decisions and promoting sustainable development in the country is scant. This thesis evaluates the effectiveness of public participation in EIA in the Punjab province by adopting a pragmatic combination of qualitative and quantitative research strategy. The methodology involved reviewing the literature, developing an evaluation framework incorporating the country context, investigating four EIA cases of transport infrastructure and industrial development projects through content analysis of related documents, and in-depth interviews of the stakeholders.
Several inadequacies and prospects are discovered. EIA and Public participation are not integrated into project planning cycle due to a legal lacuna of requiring EIA before start of construction rather than before procurement of site and detailed design. The case studies demonstrated a weak influence of public concerns on decisions, since consultations were held after taking irreversible decisions. Lack of information about participation opportunities, poor accessibility and quality of EIA reports, lack of communication and transparency in the decision making process were some of the other barriers, which also exist elsewhere even in well established EIA regimes. Provision of an egalitarian environment during public hearings, sufficient time for submitting concerns, and a high degree of willingness and availability of public to participate were some of the attributes in contrast with what the literature generally suggests. Furthermore, this study revealed that involving technical experts and NGOs can influence more positively on the public hearing outcome than the directly affected public. Thus, the theoretical connotations of public participation in EIA may not be generalized and there is a need to revisit the theory, particularly in the context of developing countries.
Overall, it is concluded that despite certain impediments public participation in EIA is gradually gaining ground in Pakistan. Useful recommendations have been made to enhance the effectiveness of EIA. In particular, a new model for proactive but represented public participation has been suggested to take place before EIA and selection of site for a development project.

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6,274 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 CONTENTS

 

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2

1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of EIA and Public Participation

1.2 Statement of the Problem

1.3 Transport Infrastructure and Industrial Development in Pakistan

1.4 Scope of the thesis

1.5 Aim, Objectives and Research Questions

1.6 Research Process

1.7 Nature and Purpose of Chapters of the Thesis

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3 2 THEORETICAL CONTEXT AND INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN EIA

2.1 Public Participation in Environmental Decision Making A Historical Perspective

2.2 Understanding Consultation and Participation

2.3 Categories of Stakeholders or the Public

2.4 Participation Techniques

2.5 The Developed Countries’ Context of Public Participation in EIA

2.6 The Developing Countries’ Perspective of Public Participation in EIA

2.7 Lessons from Literature

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4 3 PRINCIPLES AND EVALUATION FRAMEWORK FOR PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN EIA

3.1 Effectiveness of Public Participation

3.2 International Best Practice Principles of Public Participation

3.3 Core Values for Public Participation Practice

3.4 The Community Development Society’s Principles of Good Practice

3.5 The Criteria of Provisions and Actors’ Attitudes and Capacities

3.6 The Criteria of Fairness, Competence and Social Learning

3.7 The Criteria of Evaluating Context, Process and Outcome

3.8 Theoretical Basis for Developing an Evaluation Framework for Public Participation in EIA in Pakistan

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5 4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

4.1 Research Strategy

4.2 Literature Review

4.3 Framework for Evaluation of Public Participation in EIA in Pakistan

4.4 The Case Study Approach

4.5 Data Collection

4.6 Limitations and Difficulties in Data Collection

4.7 Data Analysis and Interpretation of Results

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6 5 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT PROCESS AND DECISION MAKING IN PAKISTAN

5.1 Legal Provisions for EIA

5.2 EIA Administration

5.3 EIA Decision Making and Approval Process

5.4 Overall Weaknesses and Opportunities in respect of EIA System in Pakistan

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7 6 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT PROCESS AND DECISION MAKING IN PAKISTAN

6.1 Sialkot-Lahore Motorway Project

6.2 Lahore Canal Bank Road Remodelling Project

6.3 Sundar Industrial Estate Project

6.4 Bestway Cement Factory Project

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8 7 ANALYSIS OF PUBLIC PARTICIPATION IN EIA OF CASE STUDY PROJECTS

7.1 Legal Requirements

7.2 Methods and Quality of Information

7.3 Timing and Venue of Public Consultation

7.4 Composition and Awareness of the Public Involved

7.5 Methods and Framework for Consultation

7.6 Consideration of Public Concerns in the EIA Reports

7.7 Transparency of Decision Making Process

7.8 Incorporation of Public Concerns into the Final Decision

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9 8 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE CASE STUDIES

8.1 Meeting the Legal Requirements

8.2 Effectiveness of the Methods of Informing the Stakeholders and Quality of Information Provided in the EIA Reports

8.3 Suitability of Timing and Accessibility of the Consultation Venue

8.4 Composition and Awareness of the Public Involved

8.5 Effectiveness of the Methods and Framework for Public Consultation

8.6 Extent of Considering Public Concerns in the EIA Reports

8.7 Degree of Transparency of the Decision Making Process

8.8 Influence of Public Concerns on the Final Decision

8.9 Overall Situation of Public Participation in EIA of Development Projects in Punjab

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10 9 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

9.1 Introduction

9.2 Objective One: Reviewing the Theoretical Context and Practice of Public Participation in EIA Systems of Developed and        Developing Countries

9.3 Objective Two: Establishing the Status, Weaknesses and Opportunities of the EIA System in Pakistan

9.4 Objective Three: Identifying Best Practice Principles and Criteria to Develop a Framework for Evaluating Public Participation

9.5 Objective Four: Evaluating the Practice of Public Participation in EIA in Punjab, Pakistan

9.6 Objective Five: Formulating Recommendations for Improving Public Participation and the EIA System

9.7 Lessons for Improving EIA Public Participation Practice in the International Context

9.8 Suggestions for Further Research

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11 10 APPENDICES & REFERENCES

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