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Title of Thesis

Regional Scale Sediment Yield Modeling Using Gis And Remote Sensing

Author(s)

Ghulam Nabi

Institute/University/Department Details
Centre Of Excellence In Water Resources Engineering / University Of Engineering And Technology, Lahore
Session
2009
Subject
Engineering
Number of Pages
173
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
Sediment, Gis, RSSYM, Gariala, Catchment, Astor, MRSSYM, Hydrograph, Fractal, Zhang, Correlation,  statistical

Abstract
A grid based Regional Scale Sediment Yield Model RSSYM was setup different catchments of Indus basin using coarse resolution grid data. When coarse grid data is used, the land slope decreases and sediment delivery is reduced. In this study the slope averaging effect was minimized by using the fractal analysis approach. The fractal constant (a) and fractal dimension (D) equations were correlated with the standard deviation on elevation by Zhang et al. (2000). These equations for fractal constant and fractal dimension were developed using Digital Elevation Model of 1 km2 resolution (DEM) for local topography. The slope was computed for 250 m and50 m downscaling from 1 km2 grid. A comparison was made between fractal constant equation and fractal dimension to scale down the slope parameter. Both equations were incorporated in RSSYM. The model was applied to Phulra catchment. The results showed that fractal dimension equation gives better results as compared to fractal constant. So the fractal dimension equation was incorporated in RSSYM.
The RSSYM was applied on three catchments of Indus basin namely Soan, Gariala and Phulra. For Phulra catchment of Siran river the total observed sediment was 0.304 million tons whereas the simulated sediment was 0.291 million tons. The coefficient of efficiency (COE) was 0.85 and the coefficient of determination was 0.83 which shows that there is a good correlation between the observed and simulated values.
In Gariala catchment the observed sediment was 6.01 million tons whereas simulated sediment was 6.80 million tons. The coefficient of efficiency for Gariala catchment was 0.91 and the coefficient of determination observed and simulated hydrograph was 0.81. Similarly for the Soan catchment the observed sediment was 10.61 million tons and simulated sediment was 12.29 million tons. The coefficient of determination and coefficient of efficiency for this catchment was 0.95 and 0.98 respectively.
The snowmelt runoff model SRM was applied to Astor catchment to test the applicability of temperature index approach for Indus basin. The terrain is difficult to measure the hydrological and hydraulics data. Most of the data was available at the outlet of the catchments. The input data included daily temperature and precipitation, dividing the catchment in to different zone depending on the elevation difference. The elevation zones were generated from the DEM of the area. The snow depletion curves were made for the snow covered area derived from the satellite data analysis on monthly basis. The model output was discharge hydrograph. The COE was 0.91 which shows that there is a good correlation between the observed and simulated values. The statistical test showed that model performance was good. The results of SRM model encouraged to use temperature index approach for snowmelt runoff estimation in the Indus basin.
A snowmelt runoff model was developed using temperature index approach. The model was coupled with regional scale sediment yield model RSSYM. The coupled model was named as modified regional scale sediment yield model (MRSSYM). The MRSSYM model was applied to Astor and Gilgit catchments. For the Astor catchment total observed sediment load was 3.98 million tons whereas the simulated sediment load was 4.34 million tons. The coefficient of the model was 0.89 whereas the coefficient of determination was 0.83. Similarly for Gilgit catchment the measured and simulated sediment loads were 4.50 and 4.48 million tons respectively. The coefficient of efficiency and coefficient of determinations were 0.95 and 0.88 respectively. From the results it can be concluded that MRSSYM can be applied with confidence to various catchments of Indus basin where runoff is due to snowfall and snow melting.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 CONTENTS

 

vii
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2

1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 General
1.2 Sedimentation In Indus Basin
1.3 Regional Scale Modeling
1.4 Problems In Regional Scale Modeling
1.5 Concept Of Scaling
1.6 Snowmelt Modeling
1.7 Objectives
1.8 Socio-economics And Other Benefits
1.9 Contribution Toward The Ph.d Study
1.10 Scope Of Study
1.11 Thesis Overview

1
63 KB
3 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 INTRODUCTION
2.2 Hydrological Modeling
2.3 Soil Erosion Modeling
2.4 Description Of Mmf Soil Erosion Model
2.5 Scale And Scaling In Modeling
2.6 Fractal Method For Scaling Topographic Slope
2.7 Description Of Regional Scale Sediment Model (RSSYM)
2.8 Algorithm For One Dimensional Forward Kinematic Schem
2.9 Snowmelt Models
2.10 Description Of Snowmelt Runoff Model (SRM)
2.11 Remote Sensing And Snow Mapping
2.12 Selection Of Remote Sensing Data
2.13 Summary

15
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4 3 METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Selection Of Catchments
3.3 Data Collection
3.4 Development Of Fractal Dimension Equation
3.5 Setting Up Of Snowmelt Runoff (SRM) Model
3.6 Setting Up Of Regional Scale Sediment Yield(RSSYM) Model
3.7 Development Of Snowmelt Runoff Model
3.8 Coupling Of Srm Model With (RSSYM) Model
3.9 Application Of MRSSYM Model
3.10 Summary

59
176 KB
5 4 SNOWMELT RUNOFF MODELING

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Application Of Srm Model
4.3 Topographic Data Input
4.5 Input Parameters
4.6 Calibration Of SRM Model
4.7 Validation Of SRM Model
4.8 Summary

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6 5 SEDIMENT YIELD MODELING USING FRACTAL APPROACH IN REGIONAL SCALE SEDIMENT YIELD MODEL

5.1 Introduction
5.2 Development Of Fractal Equation
5.3 Model Application To Phulra Catchment
5.4 Characteristics Of The Selected Catchments
5.5 Model Application To Phulra Catchment
5.6 Data Input
5.7 Validation Of The Model
5.8 Model Application To Gariala Catchment
5.9 Model Application To Dhok Catchment
5.10 Summary

87
362 KB
7 6 MODIFIED REGIONAL SCALE SEDIMENT YIELD MODEL

6.1 Introduction
6.2 Adaption Of Snowmelt Runoff Model
6.3 Algorithem For Development Of MRSSYM Model
6.4 Main Components Of The Model
6.5 Summary

110
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8 7 SEDIMENT YIELD MODELING USING MODIFIED REGIONAL SCALE SEDIMENT YIELD MODEL

7.1 Introductuon
7.2 Data Input
7.3 Application Of The Model To Astor Basin
7.4 Model Application To Gilgit Basin
7.5 Summary

117
258 KB
9 8 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

8.1 Conclusions
8.2 Recommendations

128
13 KB
10 9 REFERENCES AND APPENDIX

130


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