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Title of Thesis

Examination of Women Reproductive Health Within Socio-Economic and Cultural Framework: A Study of Two Urban Settlements of N.W.F.P.

Author(s)

MOHAMMAD MUMTAZ KHAN

Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Rural Sociology, Faculty of Agriculture Economics and Rural Sociology, University Of Agriculture, Faisalabad.
Session
2009
Subject
Rural Sociology
Number of Pages
292
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
Women Reproductive Health, women's education, Pakistani society, Socio-Economic, development in family income, Sex Preference

Abstract

Women reproductive health problems are found all over the world, particularly in developing countries. Individual is the prisoner of society. Culture determines way of life and interaction process in a group, which is known through cultural norms and values. With the passage of time; the evolutionary process in social system has been bringing about change in values regarding women and their rights. As a result a lot of consideration is seen for the protection of women rights. In this connection woman reproductive health has been considered in a male dominant society as most serious issue. The developing countries have also been considering and paying attention to human reproductive rights within socio economic and cultural frame work.

The study focuses on the facilities in Pakistani society. This research study conducted to asses the women reproductive health problem in N.W.F.P. (Pakistan). The overall objectives of the study was to diagnose the effects and changes in behavior pattern of society concerning, demographic, social, cultural, religious and economic aspects of women living in different classes in urban area of, Peshawar and Kohat. The study focuses on social, economic and cultural consideration for the benefit of women's reproductive health. The study universe consists of urban Peshawar and Kohat, which is the true representative of two geographical regions; separated by a range of mountains of Tribal Belt of Dara Adam Khel of the province of N.W.F.P. A sample of 720 women respondent of three strata, i.e. lower, middle and upper class women with at least one living child or life birth were interviewed and sampling procedure was taken through stratified random sampling- both the quantitative (second resource as well as field survey) and qualitative (focus group's interviews) studies were conducted with the aim to produce valid results.


The uni-variate, bi-variate and multivariate of quantitative and qualitative data provides evidences that the study provide evidences that educated spouse lead a healthy and prosperous life in community, leading towards significant reduction in child and maternal mortality in both districts of study in NWFP. The single most important variable in the discussion will be that education of females has to be made an area of priority by the policy makers, and then the society could get rid of many reproductive health problems. The most remarkable and significant aspect is keeping control at family size with use of contraception and that is possible with health education.

The evidence from the study supports the idea that development in family income and better occupation is the pre-condition for reproductive health. The data analysis clearly demonstrates that women's education and cultural tradition in terms of women's restricted
participation in family and non-family matters, religiosity, family values, obligations and husband domination exert an important influence on fertility and contraceptive behavior. It also emerged from the study findings that culture maintains its influence in explaining
reproductive behavior and small family size independent of economic development.

The type of family and socio economics status with cultural background in women with reproductive age in community and their impact on reproductive health as well as family size  and use or not use of contraceptive is important social and cultural factors of any society and the response of respondent about use or non use of contraceptive is also important. The data in study showed that preferences of male child over female child, i.e. norms of sex preferences have been changing with the literacy and education in females. The changing status of women has dominant affect on the health of women. The changing norms of family setup were evident in the study. The study showed the high tendency regarding norms of communication between spouses. The important aspect and issue in the study was the improvement in status and participation by female in decision making in home affairs; but the male domination in lower class may lead towards many negative aspects of complete participation of women in participation in decision making process. These descriptions are shown in different tables in the chapter. Specially, those respondents, who belong to joint and extended families, reflected that respondents who belong to nuclear had the more chances of many/low children as compared to joint family system.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 CONTENTS

 

 
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1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Introduction

1.2 International Perspective

1.3 Regional Scenarios Regarding Demographic Comparison

1.4 Reproductive Health in National Perspective

1.5 Background

1.6 National Programs on Reproductive Health

1.7 Research Program on Reproductive Health

1.8 Health Facilities

1.9 Population Policies Effecting Family Structure

1.10 Demographic Indicators for Pakistan

1.11 Rationale of the Study

1.12 Conceptual Framework of the Study

1.13 Objectives of the Study

1.14 Summary

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3 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Ages of Respondents

2.3 Educational Attainment of Woman

2.4 Occupation and Economic Status

2.5 Family Income and Residence

2.6 Culture and Reproductive Health

2.7 Infant Mortality and Reproductive Health

2.8 Status of Women in Role Relationship and Reproductive Health

2.9 Woman Participation in Decision-Making

2.10 Gender Role and Relationship

2.11 Contraceptive use Behavior Pattern of Spouse

2.12 Communication on Family Matters and Reproductive Health

2.13 Women Participation and Reproductive Health

2.14 Religiosity, Conservatism and Reproductive Health

2.15 Normative and Physical Cost of Contraception

2.16 Attitude of Health Providers and Utilization Health Facilities

2.17 Islamic Perspective of Reproductive Health

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4 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Research Design

3.3 Profiles of the Study Areas

3.4 Organization of the Fieldwork

3.5 Field Management & Data Collection

3.6 Some Aspects for Improving the Quality of Data

3.7 Threats to Validity

3.8 Sampling and Sample Size

3.9 Sample Size

3.10 Selection of Respondents

3.11 Phases of Fieldwork

3.12 Constraints

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5 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS OF FOCUS GROUPS INTERVIEW

4.1 Introduction

4.2 What are Focus Groups?

4.3 What is Focus Group Interview?

4.4 Organization of Focus Group

4.5 Focus group discussion

4.6 Operation of Focus Group Interviews

4.7 Process of the Conducting Focus Group Interview.

4.8 Analysis of Focus Group Interviews

4.9 Summary and Conclusion

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6 5 GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS AND INDEX VARIABLE

5.0 Introduction

5.1 Socio- Economic, Cultural & Demographic Variables

5.2 Age of Husband

5.3 Respondent age at Marriage

5.4 Husband age at Marriage

5.5 Respondent's Literacy

5.6 Husband Literacy

5.7 Occupation of Respondent

5.8 Respondents Monthly Income

5.9 Respondents Husband Occupation

5.10 Family Monthly Income

5.11 Type of Family Living in

5.12 Are you Married within Family?

5.13 Which set up of Family you Prefer

5.15 No of Live Births

5.16 Respondent Wants of More Children

5.17 Husband Wants More Children

5.18 Number of Boys

5.19 Sex Preference

5.20 Husband Allows Activities

5.21 Gender Roles and Relationship

5.22 Do your Husband can Allow you in Following Activities?

5.23 Behavior Pattern Concerning Participation in Decision-Making

5.24 Percentage Distribution of Variable Communication

5.25 Distribution of Respondents of Variable Religiosity and Contraception

5.26 Reproductive Health Issues and Matters And Health Facilities

5.27 Have you Ever has Reproductive Health Problems

5.29 When Woman Have More Chances of Pregnancy

5.36 Knowledge Regarding Birth Control

5.42 Users of Contraception

5.44 How to Change Behavior Regarding Contraception? Are you Ready to Change?

5.48 Health Provider's Attitude

5.49 Facilitation of Reproductive Health Problems

5.50 Prenatal Checkup

5.51 Post partum Checkup

5.52 Privacy and Facility Available with Doctors

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7 6 EXPLORING RELATIONSHIP AMONG VARIABLES & TESTING OF HYPOTHESES

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Socio-Economic Variable’s Influence on Reproductive Health

6.3 Relationship of Dependent Variable Contraceptive use with Independent Variables

6.4 Correlation Analysis

6.5 Multi-Variate Analysis for Examining the Relative Importance of Predictor Variables:

6.6 Linear Regression Model:

6.9 Logistic Regression for Explaining Contraceptive Behavior

6.10 Summary:

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8 7 FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY RECOMMENDATION

7.1 Age at Marriage of Spouse

7.2 Religiosity

7.3 Physical and Normative Cost

7.4 Attitude of Health Providers

7.5 Conclusions

7.6 Policy Recommendations

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9 8 BIBLIOGRAPHY AND APPENDICES

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