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Title of Thesis

Muhammad Iqbal
Institute/University/Department Details
University Of Arid Agriculture/Institute Of Education And Research
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
cooperative learning, mathematics, academic achievement, learning technique

An experimental study with (2x2) factorial design was conducted to examine, "the effect of cooperative learning on the academic achievement of secondary school students in mathematics". Mathematics, being a leading logical science, is considered inevitable for social life as well as exploration of the universe. Hence mathematics has been regarded as an essential part of curricula upto secondary level allover the world. Mathematics, on the learning aspect, involves typical logic and argumentation which require specific teaching-learning methodologies. The quest of more favourable teaching-learning technique is equally important for learners as well as for the teachers, education planners, managers and administrators. Objective of this study included: (1) To determine whether the cooperative learning is more effective than traditional methods of teaching with respect to academic achievements of students in mathematics; (2) To examine the effects of cooperative learning on the academic achievement of high-achievers; (3) To examine the effects of cooperative learning on the academic achievement of low-achievers; (4) To examine the effects of cooperative learning on the retention of the students in mathematics; (5) To recommend for the improvement and promotion of suitable method of teaching mathematics to secondary school students.

This study was conducted in Government High School DA V College Road, Rawalpindi. The students of 10th class section B and C served as the sample of study. Students were divided into two sections on the basis of pretest (appendix -1). Section B served as the control group and section C served as the experimental group. Two mathematics teachers having equal qualification, equal teaching experience and considerably equal teaching potential, were selected to teach the control and the experimental groups. Same lesson plans and worksheets were used along with the direct teaching strategy for the both the control and the experimental groups. The control group -was kept under control condition by providing traditional competitive situation in the class while the experimental group was provided with cooperative learning method STAD as treatment. This experimental lasted for a period of 10 weeks (4th September 2003 to 20th November 2003). After the provision of instruction and practice on 18 lesson plans covering five chapters, the academic achievement of the control group and the experimental group was examined through a posttest (Appendix-2). The students and teachers continued working on next chapters. Six weeks after the first evaluation, the same posttest was administered surprisingly, to test the retention of the students of the both experimental and the control group.

Pretest (appendix -1) and posttest (appendix-2) were used as measuring tools in the experiment. The pretest was for the equal distribution of students in the control and the experimental groups. The purpose of posttest was to measure the achievement as well as retention of the students after treatment. Actually posttest was a test parallel to pretest. The equality and similarity of the two tests was ensured on the basis of judgmental evaluation by the experts. Reliability of this test was determined by using Spearman- Brown's prophecy formula. Reliability of the posttest was found to be 0.75. Significance of difference between the mean scores of the experimental and the control groups on the variables of pretest; posttest and retention test was tested by applying t-test. To test the treatment effects for high and low achievers of both the experimental and control groups on posttest and retention tests, the factorial design (2x2) analysis of variance, was applied. The interaction effect was explained on the basis of graphs.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
89.98 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
53.22 KB
3 2 Review Of Literature 7
410.86 KB
  2.1 Definitions 7
  2.2 Theoretical Basis Of Cooperative Learning And Achievement 9
  2.3 Rationale Of Cooperative Learning 17
  2.4 Uniqueness Of Cooperative Learning 20
  2.5 Elements Of Cooperative Learning 22
  2.6 Types Of Cooperative Learning Groups 26
  2.7 Methods Of Cooperative Learning 27
  2.8 Pitfalls Of Cooperative Learning 36
  2.9 Implementation Of Cooperative Learning In The Classroom 37
  2.10 Mathematics And Cooperative Learning 42
  2.11 Research In Cooperative Learning 45
4 3 Research Methodology 52
71.44 KB
  3.1 Population 53
  3.2 Delimitation Of The Study 53
  3.3 Sample 54
  3.4 Research Instruments 54
  3.5 Selection And Training Of Teachers For Experiment 55
  3.6 Treatment 57
  3.7 Data Collection 58
  3.8 Analysis Of Data 59
5 4 Result And Discussion 60
218.17 KB
6 5 Summary 73
22.87 KB
7 6 Conclusion 75
21.99 KB
  6.1 Recommendation 75
8 7 Literature Cited 77
78.45 KB
9 8 Appendices 86
125.62 KB
  8.1 Appendix-I Pretest 86
  8.2 Appendix-II Posttest 95
  8.3 Appendix-III Statistical Data (Tests Scores) 104
  8.4 Appendix-IV Statistical Data (High Achievers) 105
  8.5 Appendix-V Statistical Data (Low Achievers) 105