I= IMPACT OF SMALL IRRIGATION SCHEMES ON POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN MARGINAL AREAS OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN
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Title of Thesis
IMPACT OF SMALL IRRIGATION SCHEMES ON POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN MARGINAL AREAS OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

Author(s)
Munawar Hussain
Institute/University/Department Details
University of Agriculture/ Agri-Economics
Session
2004
Subject
Agri-Economics
Number of Pages
159
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
poverty, agriculture, economy, irrigation, crop productivity, pothowar plateau, land distribution, farm households, rainfed, marginal areas

Abstract
The study was conducted to assess the impact of small-scale irrigation schemes on agricultural production and poverty in marginal areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Nine tehsils of the Pothowar Plateau were selected as study area. Data were collected for the period 2002-03 and analysis was carried out with the help of various econometric techniques. Descriptive statistics with the mean values for different socioeconomic characteristics were taken for various tehsils of the study area. The poverty estimates were 38 percent, 34 percent and 27 percent in the rural areas of districts of Attock, Rawalpindi and Chakwal, respectively while overall poverty in the area was 33 percent. The poverty head counts were found 26 percent, 26 and 37 percent in irrigated, irrigated plus rainfed and rainfed categories of the farmers, respectively. Socioeconomic characteristics of the poor and non- poor households were also estimated. Poor were found deprived with their access to basic necessities of life as compared to the non-poor households. Agricultural income shared major portion of annual income of the poor households while income from business was found major source of annual income of the non-poor households. Similarly, expenditure on food was higher for poor than non-poor. Agricultural productivity and profitability was lower in the poor farm households as compared with the non-poor households. In "both, rainfed and irrigated agriculture, poor households had less cropped area, crop "yield per hectare, and gross margin than that of non-poor. However, cost of production was found higher in poor households than non-poor households. The water productivity was found 1.53 kg/M3, 2.47 kg/M3, 0.72 kg/M3, 1.90kg/M3 and 0.87kg/M3 for wheat, maize Rabi, gram, groundnut and maize Kharif, respectively. Water value was found Rs. 13.42/M3, Rs. 18.60/M3, Rs. 12.24/M3, Rs. 10.38/M3. Rs. 4.77/M3, Rs. 19.82/M3, Rs. 12.71/M3, Rs. 6.81/M3, Rs. 9.96/M3, Rs. 8.37/M3 and Rs. 4.02/M3 for wheat, maize rabi, gram, vegetable rabi, fodder rabi, groundnut, maize kharif, sorghum, millets, vegetable kharif and fodder kharif, respectively. The proper technical design, subsidies on pumping unit and water source development are some, of the crucial factors need to be addressed for the sustainable development of irrigation schemes. Family size was positively correlated with poverty while farm size, education above matriculation, and irrigation water was negatively associated with poverty. In rainfed agriculture, seed and fertilizers were found significantly affecting crop productivity where as land preparation and pesticide had positive effect on crop productivity in the Pothowar Plateau, Punjab Pakistan. However in the irrigated cultivation, improved seed, fertilizers, irrigation water and the use of pesticides were found with significant affects to crop productivity. The access to irrigation through small-scale irrigation schemes must be encouraged to increase crop production in order to alleviate poverty in the Pothowar Plateau. The land consolidation would improve the economies of scale for the installation of irrigation schemes and would also improve the agricultural productive potential of the Pothowar area. Interventions in population planning and education sectors were suggested to overcome the issue of poverty

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1626.42 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
114.95 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
181.69 KB
  1.1 Poverty Prevalence 1
  1.2 Importance of Agriculture in the Economy of Pakistan 2
  1.3 Irrigated Agriculture 2
  1.4 Scope of Expansion in Areas under Agriculture 15
  1.5 Needs for the Study 17
  1.6 Objectives of the Study 18
  1.7 Outlines of the Study 18
3 2 Review of Literature 19
340.19 KB
  2.1 Introduction 19
  2.2 Studies on the Impact Evaluation of Irrigation Developments 19
  2.3 Studies Related to the Pothowar Plateau 26
  2.4 Studies Related to the Irrigation Developments, Crop Productivity and Poverty 33
  2.5 Studies Regarding Estimation of Poverty and Impact of Different Programs 40
  2.6 Summary of the Review 50
4 3 Methodology 52
148.02 KB
  3.1 Introduction 52
  3.2 Small Scale Irrigation Schemes 52
  3.3 Research Design 54
  3.4 Estimation of Poverty 57
  3.5 Determinants of Poverty 59
  3.6 Crop Productivity 63
  3.7 Beneficiaries 65
  3.8 Summary of the Chapter 65
5 4 Basic Characteristics of the Study Area 67
205.86 KB
  4.1 Introduction 67
  4.2 Pothowar Plateau 67
  4.3 Social Characteristics of the Study Area 69
  4.4 Economic Characteristics of the Pothowar Plateau 73
  4.5 Agricultural Productivity and Profitability 75
  4.6 Comparison of Major Variables of the Pothowar Plateau with Punjab and Pakistan 80
  4.7 Water Productivity 81
  4.8 Sustainability of the Small Scale Irrigation Schemes 82
  4.9 Constraints to Crop Productivity in the Pothowar Plateau 85
  4.10 Summary of the Chapter 87
6 5 Poverty in Pothowar Plateau 89
171.66 KB
  5.1 Introduction 89
  5.2 Poverty Lines 89
  5.3 Poverty based on Head Count Index 89
  5.4 Poverty Gap and Squared Poverty Gap 90
  5.5 Poverty and Farm Size 91
  5.6 Poverty Nexus with Irrigation 93
  5.7 Social Characteristics of the Poor and Non Poor 94
  5.8 Economic Characteristics of the Poor and Non Poor 96
  5.9 Agricultural Productivity and Profitability among Poor and Non Poor 98
  5.10 Inequality in Income, Expenditure and Land Distribution in the Pothowar Plateau 100
  5.11 Summary of the Chapter 101
7 6 Determinants of Poverty 107
64.01 KB
  6.1 Introduction 107
  6.2 Determinants of Poverty in the Pothowar Plateau 107
  6.3 Determinants of Poverty in Farm Households Categories with Respect to their Farm Size 109
  6.4 Determinants of Poverty in Farm Households Categories with Respect to their Irrigation Status 109
  6.5 Determinants of Poverty in Farm Households with Respect to their Location in Different Districts of the Pothowar Plateau 110
  6.6 Summary of the Chapter 111
8 7 Crop Productivity 113
56.76 KB
  7.1 Introduction 113
  7.2 Crop Productivity in Rainfed Agriculture 113
  7.3 Crop Productivity in Irrigated Agriculture 115
  7.4 Summary of the Chapter 117
9 8 Summary and Policy Recommendations 118
84.43 KB
  8.1 Summary 118
  8.2 Policy Recommendations 122
  8.3 Limitations of the Study 123
  8.4 Future Areas of Research 124
  8.5 Future Options for Water Resources Development 124
10 9 References 127
83.7 KB
11 10 Appendix
389.13 KB
  10.1 Marginal Areas of Pakistan 134
  10.2 Poverty Estimates based on Expenditures 139
  10.3 Water Recourses in pothowar Plateau and Small Scale Irrigation Schemes 142
  10.4 Questionnaire 145
  10.5 Different Versions of Models for Determinants of Poverty and Correlation Matrix 157