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IMPACT OF SMALL IRRIGATION SCHEMES ON POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN MARGINAL AREAS OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

Hussain, Munawar (2004) IMPACT OF SMALL IRRIGATION SCHEMES ON POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN MARGINAL AREAS OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN. PhD thesis, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad.

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Abstract

The study was conducted to assess the impact of small-scale irrigation schemes on agricultural production and poverty in marginal areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Nine tehsils of the Pothowar Plateau were selected as study area. Data were collected for the period 2002-03 and analysis was carried out with the help of various econometric techniques. Descriptive statistics with the mean values for different socioeconomic characteristics were taken for various tehsils of the study area. The poverty estimates were 38 percent, 34 percent and 27 percent in the rural areas of districts of Attock, Rawalpindi and Chakwal, respectively while overall poverty in the area was 33 percent. The poverty head counts were found 26 percent, 26 and 37 percent in irrigated, irrigated plus rainfed and rainfed categories of the farmers, respectively. Socioeconomic characteristics of the poor and non- poor households were also estimated. Poor were found deprived with their access to basic necessities of life as compared to the non-poor households. Agricultural income shared major portion of annual income of the poor households while income from business was found major source of annual income of the non-poor households. Similarly, expenditure on food was higher for poor than non-poor. Agricultural productivity and profitability was lower in the poor farm households as compared with the non-poor households. In "both, rainfed and irrigated agriculture, poor households had less cropped area, crop "yield per hectare, and gross margin than that of non-poor. However, cost of production was found higher in poor households than non-poor households. The water productivity was found 1.53 kg/M3, 2.47 kg/M3, 0.72 kg/M3, 1.90kg/M3 and 0.87kg/M3 for wheat, maize Rabi, gram, groundnut and maize Kharif, respectively. Water value was found Rs. 13.42/M3, Rs. 18.60/M3, Rs. 12.24/M3, Rs. 10.38/M3. Rs. 4.77/M3, Rs. 19.82/M3, Rs. 12.71/M3, Rs. 6.81/M3, Rs. 9.96/M3, Rs. 8.37/M3 and Rs. 4.02/M3 for wheat, maize rabi, gram, vegetable rabi, fodder rabi, groundnut, maize kharif, sorghum, millets, vegetable kharif and fodder kharif, respectively. The proper technical design, subsidies on pumping unit and water source development are some, of the crucial factors need to be addressed for the sustainable development of irrigation schemes. Family size was positively correlated with poverty while farm size, education above matriculation, and irrigation water was negatively associated with poverty. In rainfed agriculture, seed and fertilizers were found significantly affecting crop productivity where as land preparation and pesticide had positive effect on crop productivity in the Pothowar Plateau, Punjab Pakistan. However in the irrigated cultivation, improved seed, fertilizers, irrigation water and the use of pesticides were found with significant affects to crop productivity. The access to irrigation through small-scale irrigation schemes must be encouraged to increase crop production in order to alleviate poverty in the Pothowar Plateau. The land consolidation would improve the economies of scale for the installation of irrigation schemes and would also improve the agricultural productive potential of the Pothowar area. Interventions in population planning and education sectors were suggested to overcome the issue of poverty

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords:poverty, agriculture, economy, irrigation, crop productivity, pothowar plateau, land distribution, farm households, rainfed, marginal areas
Subjects:Agriculture & Veterinary Sciences(a)
ID Code:380
Deposited By:Mr. Muhammad Asif
Deposited On:03 Aug 2006
Last Modified:04 Oct 2007 21:00

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