I= PRODUCTIVITY AND RESIDUAL EFFECTS OF GREEN MANURE LEGUMES IN CEREAL-BASED CROPPING SYSTEM IN POTHOWAR PLATEAU
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Title of Thesis
PRODUCTIVITY AND RESIDUAL EFFECTS OF GREEN MANURE LEGUMES IN CEREAL-BASED CROPPING SYSTEM IN POTHOWAR PLATEAU

Author(s)
Muhammad Ibrahim Sultani
Institute/University/Department Details
University of Arid Agriculture/Range Management and Forestry
Session
2004
Subject
Forestry
Number of Pages
197
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
farming systems, green manure, nutrient cycling, phosphorus levels, biomass, nitrogen concentration, crude protein, fiber content, soil organic matter, cyamopsis tetragonaloba (l), vigna umbelate (thumb), sesbania aculeata (linn)

Abstract
Investigations which included two experiments were carried out at the National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, Pakistan during 2001-2003. In first experiment effect of different green manuring crops namely Cyamopsis tetragonaloba (L), Vigna umbelate (Thumb) and Sesbania aculeata (Linn) and levels of phosphorus fertilizer (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg ha-1) on biomass of green manure crops, organic matter addition as of incorporation of biomass, improvement in N soil fertility status, impact on physical properties and ultimately productivity of wheat was investigated. The second experiment was carried to investigate the effect of phosphorus sequencing and green manure crops mentioned in experiment one on various parameters mentioned above. Results of the experiment indicated that maximum fresh biomass (22.57 t ha-1) and dry biomass (4.33 t ha-1) was produced by Sesbania aculeata followed by fresh biomass of Cluster bean (19.31 t ha-1) and dry biomass (3.70 t ha-1). Lowest fresh biomass was produced by Rice bean (16.86 t ha-1) and dry biomass (3.25 t ha-1). Application of P further enhanced above ground green biomass production upto 28.59 t ha-1. Incorporation of Sesbania biomass as green manures on the average increased soil organic matter by 20%, N by 23 %, P by 71 % and K by 29%; these manures further significantly reduced soil bulk density (5%), enhanced porosity (8%), moisture retention (5%) and available water (17%). Green manure increased total biomass of succeeding wheat crop by 16%. There was significantly positive interaction of green manure legumes and P fertilization by 20%. Furthermore their integrated residual effect of 3% to 5% was noted on various parameters in the succeeding crop year.

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Abstract 1
691.02 KB
2 1 Introduction 2
45.36 KB
3 2 Review Of Literature 6
342.03 KB
  2.1 Farming Systems In The Pothowar Plateau 6
  2.2 Green Manure 7
  2.2.1 Functions of Green Manure 8
  2.2.2 Management of Green Manure 8
  2.2.3 Incorporation of Green Manure 9
  2.2.4 Green Manure Crops 10
  2.2.5 Cluster Bean (Guar) 10
  2.2.6 Rice Bean 12
  2.2.7 Sesbania 13
  2.3 Green Manuring Impact On Soil Fertility 14
  2.3.1 Green Manuring Impact on Organic Matter 15
  2.3.2 Green Manuring Impact on Nutrient Cycling 17
  2.3.2.1 Green Manuring impact on soil physical properties 17
  2.3.2.2 Residual effect of green manuring 18
  2.3.2.3 Effect on bulk density and total porosity 19
  2.3.2.4 Effect of green manuring on water retention and available water 20
  2.3.2.5 Effect of Green manuring on soil structure and Pore size 21
  2.4 Phosphorus Application To Green Manure Legumes 23
  2.4.1 Phosphorus Uptake 24
  2.4.2 Nitrogen Uptake 25
  2.4.3 Green Manure Effect on Succeeding Crop 26
  2.4.4 Fertilizer Use Impact on Wheat Production in Relation to Green 27
  2.5 Crude Protein And Crude Fibre 29
  2.5.1 Grain Yield and its Components 30
  2.5.1.1 Number of tillers 32
  2.5.1.2 Number of grains per spike 33
  2.5.1.3 Grain formation in spikelets 34
4 3 Materials And Methods 35
112.23 KB
  3.1 Site Description 35
  3.1.1 Pre-Sowing Soil Sampling 35
  3.1.2 Green manure crop species 36
  3.2 Description Of Experiments 36
  3.2.1 Experiment No.1 36
  3.2.1.1 Objectives 36
  3.2.1.2 Experimental Design 36
  3.2.1.3 Green manure legumes 36
  3.2.1.4 Phosphorus levels 37
  3.2.1.5 Treatments 37
  3.3 Experiment No.2 37
  3.3.1 Objectives 37
  3.3.1.1 Experiment Design 37
  3.3.1.2 Treatments 37
  3.3.1.3 Fertilizer 38
  3.3.1.4 Incorporation of Green Manuring Legumes 38
  3.3.1.5 Sowing of Legumes 38
  3.3.1.6 Sowing of Succeeding Wheat Crop 39
  3.4 Yield Estimation Of Green Manure Crops 39
  3.5 Yield And Yield Parameters Of Wheat 39
  3.5.1 Plant Height 39
  3.5.1.1 Productive Tillers 39
  3.5.1.2 Spike Length 39
  3.5.1.3 Number of Spike lets/spike 39
  3.5.1.4 Number of Grains per Spike 39
  3.5.1.5 Grain Yield of Wheat 39
  3.5.1.6 Weight of Total Biomass 40
  3.6 Plant Analyses 40
  3.6.1 Nitrogen Concentration 40
  3.6.1.1 Phosphorus Concentration 40
  3.6.1.2 Crude Protein 40
  3.6.1.3 Crude Fiber 40
  3.7 Soil Analysis 41
  3.7.1 Nutritional Analysis 41
  3.7.1.1 Organic Matter 41
  3.7.1.2 Soil Phosphorus 41
  3.7.1.3 Soil Potassium 41
  3.7.1.4 Total Soil Nitrogen 41
  3.8 Analysis For Soil Physical Properties 41
  3.8.1 Bulk Density 42
  3.8.1.1 Total Porosity 42
  3.8.1.2 Water Retention and Available Water 42
  3.9 Statistical Analysis 43
5 4 Results And Discussion 46
2924.22 KB
  4.1 Green Manure Biomass Production 46
  4.1.1 Effect of Green Manure Legume Species 46
  4.1.2 Effect of Phosphorus Levels on biomass production 50
  4.1.3 Integrated Residual Effect of Green Manures and Phosphorus 53
  4.2 Nitrogen Concentration Of Green Manures 53
  4.2.1 Effect of Green Manure Crops 53
  4.2.2 Effect of Phosphorus application on Nitrogen Concentration in green manure legumes 55
  4.2.3 Residual Effect of green manure legumes and P fertilization 57
  4.3 Crude Protein Content In Green Manure Crops 58
  4.3.1 Effect of Green Manure Legumes on their Protein contents 58
  4.3.2 Effect of Phosphorus on Protein contents of green manure legumes 58
  4.3.3 Residual Effect of green manure and P fertilization 62
  4.4 Effect Of Green Manure Crops On Fiber 62
  4.4.1 Effect of Green Manure Legumes on Fiber Content 62
  4.4.2 Effect of Phosphorus on Fiber Content 63
  4.5 Nitrogen Added By Various Green Manure 63
  4.5.1 Effect of Green Manure Legumes on Nitrogen Added 63
  4.5.2 Effect of Phosphorus on Nitrogen Added 67
  4.5.3 Residual Effect of Green Manure Legumes and P fertilization 68
  4.6 Soil Organic Matter As Influenced By 69
  4.6.1 Effect of Green Manure Legumes 69
  4.6.2 Effect of Phosphorus Application on Soil Organic Matter 72
  4.6.3 Residual Effect of Green Manure Legumes and Phosphorus 73
  4.7 Soil Nitrogen Status As Influenced By 74
  4.7.1 Effect of Green Manure Legumes on Soil Nitrogen 74
  4.7.2 Effect of Phosphorus Fertilization on Soil Nitrogen 78
  4.7.3 Residual Effects of Green Manure Legumes and Phosphorus 79
  4.8 Soil Phosphorus Status As Influenced By 80
  4.8.1 Effect of Green Manure Legumes on Soil Phosphorus 80
  4.8.2 Effect of fertilization on Soil Phosphorus 84
  4.8.3 Residual Effect of Green Manure Legumes and P Fertilization on 85
  4.9 Soil Potassium Status As Influenced By 86
  4.9.1 Effect of Green Manure Legume on Soil Potassium 86
  4.9.2 Effect of Phosphorus Application on Soil Potassium 87
  4.10 Physical Properties Of Soil As Influenced By 90
  4.10.1 Effect of Green Manure Legumes 90
  4.10.2 Effect of Phosphorus Fertilization 103
  4.11 Wheat Biomass As Influenced By Different 104
  4.11.1 Effect of Green Manure Legumes on Total Biomass of Wheat 104
  4.11.2 Effect of Phosphorus Fertilization on total biomass of wheat 105
  4.11.3 Interaction of Green Manure Legumes and Phosphorus Fertilization 111
  4.11.4 Residual Effects on Green Manuring and Phosphorus Fertilization 111
  4.12 Number Of Tillers As Influenced By Different 112
  4.13 Plant Height ( Em ) As Influenced By Different 116
  4.14 Spike Length And Number Of Spikelets Of 120
  4.14.1 Effect of Green Manures 120
  4.14.2 Effect of Phosphorus Fertilization 122
  4.15 Nitrogen Concentration In 126
  4.15.1 Effect of Green Manure Legumes 126
  4.15.2 Effect of Phosphorus Fertilization on Concentration 129
  4.15.3 Residual Effect of Green Manure Legumes and Phosphorus Application 130
  4.16 Nitrogen Uptake By Following 131
  4.16.1 Effect of Green Manure Legumes 131
  4.16.2 Effect of Phosphorus Fertilization 136
  4.16.3 Residual Effect of Green Manure Legumes and Phosphorus 137
  4.16.4 Interaction between Green Manure Legumes and Phosphorus 137
  4.17 phosphorus uptake (kg ha-l) by wheat crop 139
  4.17.1 Effect of Green Manure Legumes 139
  4.17.2 Effect of P Fertilization 139
6 5 Summary 142
64.69 KB
  5.1 Conclusions 145
  5.2 Recommendations 146
  5.2.1 General Recommendations 146
  5.2.2 Recommendations for Future Research 147
  5.2.3 Policy Recommendations 147
7 6 References 148
320.05 KB
8 7 Appendices 174
1337.84 KB