Muhammad Safdar Baloch, . (2005) INTEGRATION OF SOME MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES FOR INCREASED PRODUCTIVITY OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L). Doctoral thesis, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan.

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A research project was initiated at the Agricultural Research Institute. Dera Ismail Khan, NWFP, Pakistan during 2002 and 2003: to provide appropriate rice cultivation technologies that are agronomically practicable and economically viable under the agro-climatic conditions of the area. The research project was based on field-oriented problems faced by the paddy growers, which was also evident from face to face interviews by 50 rice growers, actively involved in rice production from major rice growing villages of the area. The field experiments relating to time of transplanting and number of seedlings hill-1 and techniques for weed control in transplanted and direct wet-seeded rice were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split-plots arrangements, replicated 4 times. The transplanting dates of nursery and methods of planting were maintained in main plots while the number of seedlings hill-1 and weed control techniques were kept as sub-plots. The sub-plot size was 2X5 m2. The trial pertaining to impact of seeding techniques in transplantged and direct wet-seeded rice was designed in RCB with a plot size 3X5m2 replicated and 4 times. Well-adapted coarse rice variety IR-6 was used in the research project. Thirty days old rice nursery was used in transplanted plots while wet pre-germinated seed was broadcast in direct seeded plots. Data were recorded on various growth and yield parameters like plant height (cm) productive tillers m-2 unproductive tillers m-2 panicles m-2 spikelets panicle-1 sterility and normal kernels percentage, 1000-grain weight (g) paddy yield (t ha-1) leaf area index (LAI), net assimilation rate (NAR) at 45 and 90 days after sowing (DAS), stem borer moths resting behaviour at 30, 45 and 60 DAS and white heads plant-1 after 90 DAS in all experiments of the project The sample size in experiment 1 was determined by using simple random sampling procedure of probability sampling. A sampling frame was developed that carried details of farmers involved in rice production. This was identified by collecting information from the key informants. The findings of the survey elucidated that water shortage high cost of inputs, non-availability of skilled labour during peak planting season, sub-optimal plant population, weeds and pest infestation high dependence of knowledge on nearby growers and low price of rice in the local market were the major restrictions in higher yields of rice. In experiment 2, the effects of transplanting dates and number of seedlings hill-1 were found to be significant in most of the agronomic and physiological parameters studied. The highest paddy yield during 2002 and 2003 (5 and 8.1 t ha-1) respectively, higher net return of Rs.7,830 and 23,330 ha-1 and benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) of 0.44 and 1.32 were recorded on 20th June planted crop with 1 seedling hill-1 during both the experimental years. Similarly in experiment 3 the effect of planting techniques (transplanting vs. direct seedling) and weed control practices including granular herbicide Sunstar 15WG (Ethoxy sulfuron) conventional hand weeding and herbicide Machete 60EC (Butachlor) significantly influenced the yield and yield contributing attributes during either year of the study Both the Sunstar and Machete application proved their efficacy against the weeds but could not match with hand weeding treatment. Minimum weed population m-2 dry weed control strategies On the basis of research findings, it is concluded that conventional transplanting technique on flat with a plant-to-plant and row-to-row spacing of 20 cm is most suitable on planting date 20th June with 1 seedling hill-1 Among weed control practices, hand weeding is most effective followed by herbicide treatment Machete 60EC. Nursery preparation and seedling broadcasting of parachute technology although, a cumbersome job but produced higher paddy yield and net return per unit area

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: rice (oryza sativa l), cultivation technologies, randomized complete block design (rcbd), plant height, productive tillers, unproductive tillers, panicles, spikelets, sterility, normal kernels percentage, 1000-grain weight, paddy yield, leaf area index, net assimilation rate (nar), insect pests
Subjects: S Agriculture > S Agriculture (General)
Depositing User: Ms Maryam Saeed
Date Deposited: 18 Jul 2017 12:00
Last Modified: 18 Jul 2017 12:00

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