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Title of Thesis

Miss Shafqat Perveen
Institute/University/Department Details
University Of Peshawar/ Education And Research
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
biology curriculum, secondary level, independence period,

Curriculum development is a dynamic and continuous process. It is subject to change in view of the changing socio-economic and political scenario. It is changed when it is not consistent with the national and goals of education.. It is changed when it loses balance, integration and relationship within and among various disciplines. Biology as an important scientific discipline, has been gaining currency doing the last three decades, and plays significant role in the filed of science. It helps in understanding ourselves, our environment and the work around us. Such were the guiding spirit that inspired the researcher to study in depth the nature and process of changes and developments of biology curriculum offered at secondary level in Pakistan Since 1960.

The main objectives governing the study are to study the nature of changes brought about in biology curriculum, to identify factor and forces warranting such changes, to identify the problems and issues inhibiting proper implementation of the curriculum in the class room and also to formulate guide-lines for not only correcting the situation but to make it more responsive to the challenges of the 21st century. The study is hoped to influence the policy of the government and will provide feed back on the operational status of the curriculum.

The study is descriptive in nature and is based on documentary analysis and filed assessment of the execution of the subject in the class room. Documentary analysis is based on critical review of all related documents formulated from time to time by the government on biology. The field analysis is bases on comments observations of the heads of institutions teachers, biologists and educationists on the nature, scope and relevance of biology curriculum, the infra-structure and the instructional facilities provided for effective teaching of the subject.

On the basis of analysis and other situational factors, it is concluded that biology curriculum has been widely diversified in nature and scope and has been sufficiently expanded vertically and horizontally. But wide margins have been left for changing its descriptive nature, ensuing its integration within itself and among other scientific disciplines and projecting more its social aspect and practical approach to the solution of social problems, besetting the society. The subject further needs to be future oriented not only perceiving the future problems of the society but incorporating the explosive nature of knowledge and information, shifting its classical and traditional mode of instruction to the emerging innovative use of sophisticated instruction technology in teaching of biology curriculum in future.

Download Full Thesis
1722.96 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
96.39 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
103.33 KB
  1.1 Background Of E Problem 1
  1.2 Statement Of The Problem 5
  1.3 Objectives Of The Study 5
  1.4 Key Questions Raised In The Study 6
  1.5 Needs And Significance Of The Study 8
  1.6 Delimitation Of The Study 10
  1.7 Method Adopted For The Study 11
3 2 Method And Procedure Of The Study 12
88.82 KB
  2.1 Nature Of The Study 12
  2.2 Steps Followed In Documentary Analysis 13
  2.3 Steps Followed In Filed Analysis Of Biology Curriculum 14
  2.4 Nature Of The Questionnaire 16
  2.5 Criteria For Evaluation 18
  2.6 Interview Guide 19
  2.7 Treatment Of Data 19
4 3 Analysis Of The Changes And Development Of Biology Curriculum Offered At Secondary Level During Pre And Post Independence Period 21
496.07 KB
  3.1 Development Of Curriculum With Reference Of To Biology Offered At Secondary Level During British Period (1785-1947) 23
  3.2 Development Of Curriculum With Reference To Biology During The Post Independence Period(1947-1960) 39
  3.3 Analysis Of Biology Curriculum For Secondary School Formulated In 1976 50
  3.4 Analysis Of Biology Curriculum Of The Class (Ix-X At Secondary Level Reformulated In 1986 61
5 4 Analysis Of The Implementation Status Of Biology Curriculum At Secondary Level 71
216.14 KB
  4.1 Biology Curriculum: Its Nature And Scope 72
  4.2 Constraints In Effective Implementation Of Biology Curriculum In The Selected Secondary Schools 78
  4.3 Ascertaining Views/Comments Of Biologists, Educationists And Senior Science Teachers On Certain Issues Relating To Biology Curriculum 88
  4.4 Educationists, Biologists And Science Teachers Views On The Present State Of Biology Curriculum 91
6 5 Findings, Conclusion And Recommendations 93
269.92 KB
  5.1 Findings 94
  5.2 Conclusions 104
  5.3 Recommendations 107
7 6 References 121
63.73 KB
8 7 Appendix
641.77 KB