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Anees, Muhammad (2005) COMPARISON OF FORMAL AND NON-FORMAL SYSTEMS OF TEACHER EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN. PhD thesis, PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi.



There are two well-known worldwide modes of education system. One is formal system where face-to-face teaching is arranged in class rooms; institutions are structured and follow a prescribed scheme of studies within prescribed time frame and academic calendar. The other is non-formal system which is carried out, out side the framework of schools, colleges and universities. It can also be institutionalized and structured but is very flexible and more diversified. Face to face teaching is not necessary throughout the academic year. Obviously, both the systems are not perfect and have some areas of strengths, weaknesses, commonalities and differences. So the researcher sought to conduct a study on comparison off formal and non-formal systems of teacher education in Pakistan. This study was designed to compare formal and non-formal systems of teacher education in Pakistan. The purpose of the study was to compare different aspects of both the systems of teacher education like objectives, nature of courses, status of instructional material, face to face teaching, practice teaching, instructional strategies, monitoring and evaluation in both formal and non-formal systems. Therefore, the objectives of the study were: (1) To investigate commonalities and differences in the status of instructional material, nature of courses, face to face teaching and objectives of formal and non-formal systems of teacher education. (2) To compare instructional strategies, practice teaching, monitoring and evaluation of formal and non-formal systems of teacher education. (3) To diagnose major areas of strengths and weaknesses of formal and non-formal systems of teacher education. (4) To suggest appropriate measures for the improvement of formal and non-formal systems of teacher education. The populations of the study consisted of all teachers and students of Government Colleges of Education (male and female)/Departments of Education Institutes of Education and Research in the Universities of Pakistan and all tutors and students of education of Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad. The study was delimited to B.Ed. programme only. The sample comprising of one thousand and twenty one teachers, tutors and students of formal and non-formal systems were randomly selected. For the collection of data, four questionnaires on five point rating scale (Likert scale) were developed for the teachers, tutors and students. Questionnaires for teachers and tutors consisted of 48 items and questionnaires for students of formal and non-formal systems contained 42 items. Each questionnaire had two open-ended options. Questionnaires were reviewed, pilot tested and validated to make them authentic and credible measuring instruments. Data were collected personally by repeated contacts with the sample. Some questionnaires were sent through mail. The collected data were tabulated, processed and analyzed by computing percentage and applying t-test for independent means and interpreted in the light of objectives. The main results of formal B.Ed. programme were, course content of formal B.Ed. programme was not future oriented and provided no base for research. Courses of the programme did not reflect latest knowledge. Teacher trainers were non- cooperative in solving students educational problems. They casually planned their lessons and did not use discussion method and individualized instruction during teaching. They did not emphasize on practical work. Formal B.Ed. programme was not cost effective and it did not inculcate Islamic ideology among the students. Duration of the programme and distribution of marks between theory and practice teaching were not appropriate. The programme did not introduce modem instructional strategies. Formal B.Ed. examination system did not measure student teachers competencies. The main results of non-formal B.Ed. programme were, instructional material of non-formal B.Ed. programme did not help to enhance professional skills. It did not develop creative thinking. Courses of the programme had no potential to meet student future needs and did not develop administrative qualities in the student teachers. Courses did not reflect latest knowledge. Tutors casually took their tutorials and did not use variety of methods. They did not use student support services and casually monitored students' activities during practice teaching. They did not return students' assignments well in time after evaluation. Non-formal B.Ed. programme did not provide computer training. Proportion of theory and practice teaching period was not sufficient. Examination system of non-formal B.Ed. programme did not produce better teachers.

Item Type:Thesis (PhD)
Uncontrolled Keywords:Teacher Education, Education System, Instructional Strategies, Practice Teaching, Education Institutes, Formal System of Education, Non-Formal system of Education, The First Educational Conference, Commission on National Education, The National Education Policy, Five-Year Educational Plans,
Subjects:Social Sciences(g) > Education(g6)
ID Code:363
Deposited By:Mr Ghulam Murtaza
Deposited On:04 Aug 2006
Last Modified:21 Mar 2015 18:52

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