I= SOCIO – ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF RETURN MIGRATION AND THE ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS IN PUNJAB Title of Thesis


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Title of Thesis

SORPTION STUDIES OF WASTE WATER EFFLUENTS CONTAINING METALLIC POLLUTANTS AND RADIOACTIVE NUCLIDES ON NATURAL SOILS AND CLAYS

Author(s)

Kazim Hussain

Institute/University/Department Details

University of the Punjab, Lahore / Institute Of Chemistry

Session

1996

Subject

Chemistry

Number of Pages

333

 

Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)

Waste Water Effluents, Metallic Pollutants, Radioactive Nuclides, Natural Bentonite, Alumina, Bentonite and Fuller's Earth, Strontium, Cobalt, Antimony, Environmental Pollution, Natural Clay

 

Abstract

The study on Natural Bentonite and Alumina in HNO has given birth to a new idea which resulted in the form of present study i.e. sorption on processed Bentonite and Fuller's Earth in HCl media. Significant changes in results have been observed as compared to the reference studies. The main purpose of the study was to establish the feasibility of Pakistani soil and clays for the disposal of waste water effluents containing low concentrations of heavy, metallic nuclear pollutants. The sorption of strontium (89) cobalt (60) and antimony (124) under varying experimental and optimum conditions for their sorption on precessed bentonite and F. earth has been studied. The sorption experiments were performed by batch technique using radioactive nuclides of the elements as tracers. Distribution coefficients, Ka and percent sorption, P, were determined radio metrically as a function of all pertinent variables i.e. shaking time, pH (1-II), temperature (13-45oC) adsorbent and adsorbate concentrations. The p11, i.e. obtained to mixing the metal solution in 0.1 N HCl with solid in 20:1 ratio was used for the sorption studies of Sr2 and Co2 where as the sorption of Sb5 was studied at pH obtained by dissolving Sbcl3 in 60% HCI, except where otherwise mentioned. All type affects of complementary cations and some organic complexing ligands were also investigated. Desorption experiments were also carried out to understand the adsorption mechanisms, from zero time to 48 hrs at 25 and 45oC. Adsorption isotnerms at various concentrations and temperature for all the above noted metal ions on processed bentonite and F. earth have been acquired. The sorption data for all the metal ions studied have been interpreted in terms of Freundich, Langmuir and D-R equations. The values of all possible parameters in these equations have been determined, discussed and summarized for all sorption systems. By using various thermodynamic and supplementary equations the values of thermodynamic parameters e.g. free energy of sorption G°, heat of sorption Ho and entropy changes S0 have been found. It has been observed that the sorption mechanism is endothermic below 25oC and exothermic above that in some of the cases. The mean free energy of sorption, E for all the sorption systems has also been calculated. The results have been interpreted in terms of all possible sorption mechanisms for each individual system. The optimum conditions for the sorption of these metal ions on processed bentonite and F. earth have been established and reported for further studies. The energy peaks (Radioactivity with date and time) of all experiments have been recorded on MCA coupled with an IBM computer for any future reference.

 

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters

Page

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    Table of Contents  

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1 1 ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AND NUCLEAR WASTE MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN 10

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2 2 THEORY AND LITERATURE REVIEW ABSORPTION AND NATURAL CLAY MINERALS 14

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3 3 PROCUREMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BENTONITE AND F.EARTH CLAY MINERALS 14

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4 4 SORPTION OF STRONTIUM (89) ON PROCESSED BETONITE 62

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5 5 SORPTION OF COBALT (60) ON PROCESSED BENTONITE

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6 6 SORPTION OF ANTIMONY (124) ON PROCESSED BENTONITE

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7 7 SORPTION OF STRONTIUM (89) ON F. EARTH FROM D.G.KHAN

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8 8 SORPTION OF COBALT (60) ON F. EARTH

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9 9 SORPTION OF ANTIMONY (124) ON F. EARTH

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10 10 CONCLUSION

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11 11 SUGGESTIONS

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12 12 REFERENCES

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