I= SOCIO – ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF RETURN MIGRATION AND THE ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS IN PUNJAB Title of Thesis


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Title of Thesis

THE METAPHYSICS OF KHAWAJA FARID

Author(s)

Shahzad Qaisar

Institute/University/Department Details

Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan /Plant Pathology

Session

1992

Subject

Philosophy

Number of Pages

364

 

Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)

Khawaja Farid, Metaphysics, Al-Ahadiyah, Al-Wahidiyah, Tawhid, Cosmos, Metaphysics Of Love, Metaphysics Of Beauty, Metaphysics Of Good, Metaphysics Of Light, Metaphysics Of Freedom, Metaphysics Of Knowledge, Metaphysical Realization

 

Abstract

Metaphysics means "beyond physics." It is a Greek term very well suited to express what lies beyond physics. Physics in its original sense means 'science of nature' which covers the entire domain of nature. Metaphysics is the study of that which lies beyond nature. Metaphysics is 'the knowledge of Universal' or the knowledge of principles belonging to the universal order. Its unlimited ness makes it indefinable. Metaphysical knowledge is attained by virtue of intellectual intuition which leads to the identity of knowledge and being. Western metaphysics, on the other hand, has a constricted view for it relies solely on reason and cannot surpass Being to reach Beyond-Being. This essential limitation of Western metaphy-sics has been mainly responsible for the product of 'pseudo theories of knowledge 'which act as counterfeit to real knowledge. The Western systems as such do not envisage the possibility of metaphy-sical realization which is the crowning achievement of true metaphysics. The metaphysics of Khawaja Farid is deeply steeped in the Eastern tradition and is free from the limitations of Western metaphysics. It envisages the Absolute as the Essence (al-ahadiyah) and as the Divinity (al-wahidiyah). The Absolute or the Supreme Reality is absolute and infinite. The Absolute in its absoluteness is beyond human knowledge. It is only at the stage of self-manifestation that It is known. The possibility of relativity arises in the Absolute in reference to the metaphysical infinity envisaged in its relation-ship with universal Possibility. The supreme and incomparable Unity (al-ahidiyah) is indivisible and is the object of Divine Knowledge alone whereas Unity (al-wahidiyah) appears in its universal aspects and is known as Uniqueness. There is the Indivisible One-and-Only but the One-and-Only is the One-and-All. This is the predominant theme of Khawaja Farid’s metaphysics which permeates his entire thought. The cosmos is theopany and acts as Divine Mirror. It does not confront God as the other. It provides a symbolic opening to reach the Reality which lies hidden behind the cosmic manifestation. The Reality is hiddenly manifest in the form of cosmos. The Cosmos can be likened to an unpolished mirror whereas man can be understood as polished mirror wherein are manifested all the aspects of existence. Perfect man is a perfect polished mirror. 'Know thyself' is the royal road to the Absolute. The Absolute as the Essence (al-ahidiyah) and as the Divinity (al-wahidiyah) is formulated in terms of the Unity of Essence and the Unity of Manyness respectively for which the word One is used. There is nothing outside the Absolute. Tawhid expresses this fundamental truth in the form of Shahadah: La Ilaha Illa 'Lah Muhammadun Rasulu' Llah which is ordinarily understood as There is no god but God', and 'Muhammad is the messenger of God'. However, from the inward, esoteric and intellectual point of view the Shahadah means: There is no divinity (or reality, or absolute) outside the only Divinity (or Reality or Absolute)' and 'Muhammad is the Envoy (the mouthpiece the intermediary, the manifestation, the symbol of the Divnity.' The entire Shahadah demonstrates that 'God alone is' and 'all things are attached to God'. In other words the Absolute is the Real and all relative is attached to the Absolute. Tawhid essentially leads to the doctrine of Oneness of Being (wahdat ul wujud). Being coincides with the Real and there is nothing other than the Real. No degree of Reality stands autonomous apart from the Absolute Reality'. The essential nature of reality is the original and ultimate mutuality in oneness. There is no distinction between the Oneness of Being (wahdat ul wujud) and Oneness of Perception (wahdat al Shudud) since both are one in the undifferentiated Reality. The doctrine of Oneness of Being has nothing to do with pantheism which essentially implies a substantial continuity between God and the Universe. It fails to perceive that the whole Reality is more than the sum of its parts or aspects. The doctrine of Oneness, of Being simply teaches 'the essential identification of the manifested order with its ontological Principle 'which is different from 'their substantial identity and continuity'. The truth of the matter is that God absolutely transcends even the category of substance. The metaphysics of Love embraces both divine and human dimensions. Divine Love is the cause of the creation or manifestation of the universe. It is the animating force of the self-manifestation of the Absolute. The Divine Essence assumes the form of the personal Divinity which makes love possible. Man's love of God is his commitment to inwardness. Metaphysics of love embraces three fundamental aspects: man's love of God, God's love of man and the reciprocity or identity. The 'adoring soul is the only possible bridge to Spirit'. The Supreme Principle is both absolute and infinite and from the latter arises Perfection, Beauty. Beauty is essentially a deployment. It is the manifestation of the Primordial Beauty. God alone is Beauty and every beauty partakes its beautifulness from God. There is no profane beauty. The soul has insatiable love, desire and yearning for Divine Beauty. Ugliness has no self-subsistent reality. It is a relative nothingness which obstructs the manifestation of Divine Beauty by creating disequilibrium but is beauty in its totality. The Supreme Reality by being Infinite expresses potentiality and thereby coincides with All-Possibility giving rise to Universal Radiation. The Supreme Principle is the 'Sovereign Good' for every good manifests its essential nature. God alone is the Good but He is also the Source of all goodness. The problem of evil arises due to the reality of universal Manifestation. Evil has no subsistent reality. It is a privation having no being in itself. The evil of remoteness is not absolute. By process of cosmic cycles the evil of remoteness is brought back to the initial Good. The Absolute Light or the Primordial Light is indefinable. Only Light can perceive itself. None knows God but God'. It is the essential nature of the 'Absolute or Light to manifest Itself and it is by virtue of this essentiality that the cosmos comes into existence which is the shadow of the Absolute. It is on account of this that the principle of relative lights emerges from the Absolute. Light is identified with Being and becomes knowable through existence and knowledge. Man is the shadow of the Absolute and it is this shadow which becomes transparent and luminous by virtue of the unveiled presence of the Spirit or Light in him. The Absolute is Freedom Itself and envisaged as universal Possibility is Unlimited. Freedom belongs to both Beyond Being or Non-Being and Being. At the level of Essence, there is absolute freedom for there is no constraint, limit. At the level of Being, which is the principle of manifestation, there is relative freedom. The totality of freedom demands constraint, limit for sole limitless-ness shall itself become a limit. Freedom in itself has no opposite but its manifestation in the form of a given freedom necessitates the possibility of, constraint, and limit. However, this constraint, limit is surpassed and ultimately the being becomes absolutely "one" at the level of Pure Freedom. Predestination and freedom are linked to the reality of Necessity and Possibility and it is an error to deny either predestination or freedom. The essence of metaphysics is Knowledge Itself. Metaphysical knowledge by dint of intellectual intuition is even more immediate than sensory intuition and is intuitive, immediate and intellectual as opposed to the ordinary knowledge which is discursive, mediate and rational. Metaphysical knowledge leads to the identity of knowledge and being by bringing freedom and deliverance. The metaphysics of Khawaja Farid is not merely theoretical but has corresponding means of realization. The triplicity of ordinary knowledge, love and action manifests the necessary milestones in the way of Self-realization but it is not the total realization itself. The realization of the human self has to be distinguished from the ultimate realization of the Self. The former realization is bound to the structure of the servant' (abd) and the 'Lord' (Rabb) and any identity in state of mystic experience is temporary. It is impossible for the realities to change, so the servant is a servant and the Lord a Lord the Real is the Real and the creature a creature. However, by virtue of the Spirit which inheres in man but is not his, he can with the grace of the Lord, surpass the axis 'servant-Lord' and realize the absolute 'Self'. Such realization is effected from the starting point of the Self than that of the servant. This is the secret of Mansur al-Hallaj's assertion 'ana'l-Haqq, I am the Truth! The Self withdrew from the servant-Lord polarity and came to reside in its own transpersonal being. It is the transcendence of pure intellect or Spirit which is identical with the Divine Essence that provides an answer to such enigmatic utterances. Realization is the Path for the fallen man who wishes to return towards the primordial state. He cannot attain realization unless his attachment to the chain (as-salsilah) is effected by means of a covenant (ahd) in the hands of the Spiritual Master who in turn transmits the reality of Being, truth and love, union or happiness. The novice learns to discern between the real and the unreal and then concentrates on the real. He passes through many states and stations and finally attains unison with the Beloved. In this entire journey, the Spiritual Master also acts as the doctor of the soul or therapist. This station achieved by the soul (nafs) is the highest and no man can go beyond it. It is what is understood by mystic realization. However, the possibility of total or metaphysical realization takes place from the side of the Spirit which leads to the Supreme Identity. It is the realization of the Sacred Knowledge Itself. Such Self-realization completely transforms the specific human overlay where in for double reflection fana (extinction) is baqa (subsistence) and baga (subsistence) is fana (extinction).

 

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters

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    Table of Contents  

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1 1 INTRODUCTORY 1

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1 1 THE MEANING OF METAPHYSICS 23

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2 2 THE ABSOLUTE AS THE ESSENCE (AL-AHADIYAH) AND AS THE DIVINITY (AL-WAHIDIYAH) 43

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3 3 THE COSMOS AS DIVINE MIRROR 67

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4 4 METAPHYSICAL STATUS OF MAN

95

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5 5 METAPHYSICAL CONCEPTION OF TAWHID

128

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6 6 ONENESS OF BEING

146

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7 7 METAPHYSICS OF LOVE

191

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8 8 METAPHYSICS OF BEAUTY

192

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9 9 METAPHYSICS OF GOOD

212

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10 10 METAPHYSICS OF LIGHT

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11 11 METAPHYSICS OF FREEDOM

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12 12 METAPHYSICS OF KNOWLEDGE

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13 13 METAPHYSICAL REALIZATION

274

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14 14 CONCLUSION

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15 15 APPENDIX

328

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16 16 BIBLIOGRAPHY

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17 17 SHORT ABSTRACT

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