I= SOCIO – ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF RETURN MIGRATION AND THE ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS IN PUNJAB Title of Thesis


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Title of Thesis

STUDY OF HEAVY ION INTERACTION IN THE LOW AND RELATIVISTIC ENERGY RANGE WITH SOLID STATE NUCLEAR TRACK DETECTORS USING AUTOMATION TRACK ANALYSIS SYSTEM

Author(s)

Muhammad Ikram Shahzad

Institute/University/Department Details

University of the Punjab, Lahore

Session

1995

Subject

Physics

Number of Pages

177

 

Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)

(16.7 MEV/U) 238U+NATAU, (3.65 GeV/u) 16O+natCu, Heavy Ion Interaction, Energy Range, Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors, Kinematical Analysis

 

Abstract

The following two reactions have been studied in this research work. 1) (16.7 MeV/u) 238U+natAu using mica track detectors 2) (3.65 GeV/u) 16O+natCu using CR-39 plastic track detectors. The reaction products ensuing from the interactions of (16.7 MeV/u) 238U ions with natAu have been investigated to establish the nuclear reaction mechanisms. The projectile fragments emitted at wide angles from the interactions of (3.65 GeV/u) 16O+natCu have been studied. Automatic, semi-automatic and manual measuring methods have been employed to collect and analyze the data. Different uncertainties arising due to the experimental limitations and errors in computed quantities have also been estimated. The kinematical analysis of the reaction (16.7 MeV/u) 238U+nat Au has been done using the' internal calibration' of the detectors. The total and partial reaction cross sections have been obtained using the statistics of different multiplicities of the inelastic exit channels. The total reaction cross section has also been deduced from the elastic data of the reaction with the help of 'quarter-point' angle. It has been confirmed that more than two particles in the final exit channel of the reaction are produced in more than one step. In the first step of the reaction two intermediate nuclei are formed as a result of inelastic collision between projectile and target atoms while in the other steps the fission of one or both of the intermediate nuclei of previous step take place. No proximity effects have been observed. The reaction (3.65 GeV/u) 16O+natCu has been studied using stacks of CR-39 plastic track detectors. The track diameters, track densities and number of through-tracks etc at different depths of the stacks have been measured. These track data have been used to investigate the relativistic projectile fragments of (3.65 GeV/u) 16O ions emitted at 20o-30o with respect to the direction of 16O ions beam incident on a thick copper target.

 

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    Table of Contents  

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1 1 INTRODUCTION 1

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2 2 HISTORICAL REVIEW 6

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3 3 HEAVY ION INTERACTIONS 16

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4 4 TRACK FORMATION AND REVELATION 30

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5 5 METHODOLOGY

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6 6 EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS AND DATA COLLECTION

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7 7 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

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8 8 SUMMARY

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9 9 LIST OF FIGURES

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10 10 LIST OF TABLES

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11 11 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

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12 12 REFERENCES

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