I= SOCIO – ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF RETURN MIGRATION AND THE ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS IN PUNJAB Title of Thesis


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Title of Thesis

FEEDING VALUE OF PROCESSED HATCHERY WASTES AS A SOURCE OF PROTEIN IN BROILER RATIONS

Author(s)

Saima

Institute/University/Department Details

University of Agriculture, Faisalabad /Animal Nutrition

Session

2001

Subject

Plant Pathology

Number of Pages

134

 

Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)

Hatchery Wastes, Protein, Broiler, Nutritional Value, Hatchery Waste Meals (HWM)

 

Abstract

The present study focused hatchery waste as a protein source based on its nutritional value. The major theme of the experiment was subjection of HWM to different processing techniques to establish its most appropriate level for usage in broiler ration in commercial poultry production sector. The experiment was conducted in four different phases. The results of each are summarized below. In the first phase of the experiment, hatchery waste was subjected to processing techniques like cooking, toasting and formaline treatment. Three levels of formaline viz. 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% were used. The dried raw and processed hatchery waste meals (HWM) were chemically and micro-biologically analyzed. The chemical, composition of raw and processed HWM showed non-significant differences in various proximate fractions because the samples for each processing technique were collected on the similar day. Similarly the amino acid profile showed non-significant differences. Calcium content was considerably high in all the three samples due to presence of shell moiety. Microbial analysis of raw hatchery waste revealed that total viable counts in raw material were significantly (P < 0.05) higher (2.6 x 1014 per gram of material) which were brought to safe level by processing techniques. The total viable counts in cooked and toasted hatchery waste meals were significantly less as compared to formaline treated meals. Free fatty acids (FFA) for cooked and toasted HWMs were 7.293 and 6.732, respectively while thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values for cooked and toasted meals were 4.782 and 4.823 mg/kg meal on first day of storage. The FFA contents and TBA values of cooked and toasted HWMs with 0.5 and 1.0% BHT showed significant differences (P < 0.01) after every 10 day interval during storage period of 40 days. Maximum FFA (11.50) was noted in toasted HWM with 0.5 % antioxidant, while minimum (9.21) were noted in cooked HWM with 1.0 % antioxidant (9.21). There were non-significant differences in FFA upto 30 days. TBA values were highest (10.29 mg) in toasted HWM with 0.5% antioxidant while lowest value (6.77 mg) for TBA was recorded in cooked HWM with 1 % antioxidant. In 3rd phase, protein quality and gross energy contents of cooked and toasted HWMs were determined. There were significant differences (P < 0.01) in weight gain, NPU and PER of standard diet, cooked and toasted meals. Maximum weight gain was observed in standard diet (82.00 grams). Net protein utilization was also significantly higher (P <0.05) in this group (48.00). Non significant differences were observed in NPU of cooked and toasted HWM. Maximum feed consumption (227.75 gms) was recorded in birds fed on toasted HWM while lowest feed consumption (189.0 gms) was noted in birds reared on protein free diet. Maximum protein intake was noted in birds consuming toasted HWM (52.34 gms). The PER was also found to be higher (1.60) in group fed standard diet. But cooked and toasted hatchery waste meals differed non-significantly in PER. Gross energy contents analyzed in cooked hatchery waste meal were 4462.72 kcal/kg of dried material whereas toasted meal was found to contain 4477.11 kcal/kg gross energy. In phase 4, the effect of control diets and diets containing 2, 4 and 6% levels of either cooked or toasted HWM on the broiler performance was observed. Significant (P<0.01) differences were recorded in weight gain and FCR of birds fed on various experimental diets during starter phase. Feed consumption was significantly (P < 0.05) low in birds fed on control diet while the differences among the diets containing various levels of cooked- and toasted HWM were non-significant. Maximum weight gain was observed in birds fed on diets with 4 % toasted HWM (917.32 g). While maximum value for FCR was recorded for control group in starter phase (1.41). The results showed non-significant differences in weight gain of birds and significant differences (P < 0.01) in feed consumption and FCR. Birds fed on control diet gained minimum weight (3076.21gms). Maximum weight gain was recorded in birds consuming diets with 6 % cooked HWM (3224.02 gms). Birds fed on control diet showed best value for FCR (2.01) while birds consuming diet containing 6% cooked HWM showed the worst value. Maximum liver weight per 100g body weight was recorded in birds kept on diets having 6% cooked HWM.

 

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters

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    Table of Contents  

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1 1 INTRODUCTION 1

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2 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 7

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3 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS 39

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4 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 62

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5 5 SUMMARY

105

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6 6 LITERATURE CITED

111

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7 7 APPENDICES

127

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