I= SOCIO – ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF RETURN MIGRATION AND THE ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS IN PUNJAB Title of Thesis


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Title of Thesis

EVALUATION OF CHICKPEA GERMPLASM, FUNGITOXICANTS, ORGANIC AND INORGANIC MATERIALS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF WILT (FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM f.sp. CICERIS)

Author(s)

Muhammad Akhtar Ayyub

Institute/University/Department Details

University of Agriculture, Faisalabad /Plant Pathology

Session

2001

Subject

Plant Pathology

Number of Pages

124

 

Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)

Chickpea Germplasm, Fungitoxicants, Wilt (FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM f.sp. (CICERIS), Sesame, Sunflower, Wheat, Rice, Mungbean, Mashbean, Sorghum, Pigeonpea, Sugarcane, Pea, Soybean,

 

Abstract

The Fusarium wilt of chickpea, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris, is becoming alarming in the chickpea growing areas, probably on account of mono-culture of susceptible chickpea cultivars. Screening of chickpea germplasm against the Fusarium wilt (F.oxysporum), requires its mass multiplication and incorporation into the soil to make it a sick soil. Various crops residues and grains were evaluated as substrate for quick and mass culturing of the pathogen. All ten crop debris/stem pieces supported mycelial growth though the extent of mycelial growth was poor on sesame, sunflower, wheat and rice, fair on mungbean, mashbean, sorghum and pigeonpea, abundant on sugarcane while very abundant on chickpea. Similarly evaluation of 10 types of seeds (Legumes and cereals) for speedy mass culturing of F. oxysporum revealed that abundant mycelial growth was supported by sorghum and very abundant growth on chickpea, pea and soybean. The mass multiplied inoculum of F. oxysporum on chickpea seed was used in making soil sick for germplasm screening in the greenhouse as well as in the field. Greenhouse evaluation of 101 chickpea germplasm cultivars/lines for the sources of resistance against F. oxysporum revealed that the test lines 99107, 99109 and 1004/99 was highly resistant. Five lines i.e. 99106, 99108, 99112, 1040/99 and 4047/89 were found to be resistant. Six lines viz., 39111, 97154, 99115, 290/99, 1009/99 and 588 exhibited moderately susceptible reaction while 13 and 74 lines were susceptible and highly susceptible, respectively. Similarly when the same 101 chickpea cultivars/ test lines were screened under field conditions against the disease, nine lines i.e. 99106,99107,99108,99109, 99112, 290/99, 1004/99, 1040/99 and 4056/99 remained free from any expression of the disease symptoms. Eight lines 4047/99, 1009/99, 588, 1001/99, 99104, 99115, 97157 and 39111 behaved as resistant. Seven lines viz., 1018/99, 290/99, 97144, 97150, 97154, 189 and 1005/89 were rated as moderately resistant. All others were susceptible to highly susceptible. Thirty two entries of chickpea germplasm which exhibited extreme disease reaction (resistant/susceptible) were selected for screening against phytotoxins after greenhouse and field evaluation of 101 test lines, two lines i.e. 99106 and 99107 were found to be highly resistant. Nine lines viz., 447, 660, 97146, 97147, 97154, 97155, 97157, 97158 and CM-98 exhibited resistant to susceptible reaction while twenty one lines behaved as highly susceptible with disease incidence ranging from 51-100 percent. Preliminary evaluation of eleven fungicides against mycelial growth of F. oxysporum f. sp. Ciceris on fungicides amended chickpea seed meal agar medium, incubated at 25°C revealed that Shincar, Score- 250, Derosal, Folicar, and Benlate were the most effective fungicides, as they showed 100, 97.59, 97.23, 94.53 and 89.79 percent reduction in mycelial growth respectively when compared on means of all concentrations (5, 10, 20, 50 ug/ml). Topas-l00 and Tilt exhibited intermediate effectiveness and Antracol, Apron, Daconil and Polyram combi were the least effective in this regard. Aqueous suspensions of five fungicides were also evaluated as soil drenches at 50, 100,200 and 500 ug/g of soil. When compared on the basis of mean number of diseased plants at all concentrations Shincar and Score-250 were found to be the most effective fungicides in reducing the number of diseased plants in soil followed by Benlate and Folicur, which were intermediate in their effectiveness, while Derosal was the least effective. Evaluation of the effect of twelve organic amendments on disease incidence revealed that Neem leaves, garlic extract, mustard and Lucerne in descending order, were the most effective in reducing the number of infected plants; Groundnut, sesame, barseem and sarsoon exhibited intermediate effectiveness. Fish meal, sawdust, oat and buffalo dung were the least effective. Evaluation of the effect of various levels of NPK revealed that soil amendment with 50 + 50+ 50 kg/ha of NPK was the most effective treatment as it gave 32.50 percent reduction in disease incidence followed by the treatments with 25+50+100, 25+100+50, 25+50+50, 25+25+50, 25+50+25, 25+0+50 and 25+50 +0 kg/ha level of NPK. Treatment with normal doses of phosphorus and potash alone had no effect in this regard. The amount of total phenols was higher in case of selected resistant group prior to inoculation with the pathogen, compared with the susceptible group, selected from 32 test lines. Upon inoculation total phenols increased significantly in both the groups, the increase being more pronounced in case of resistant group. The effect of integrated management in reducing Fusarium wilt disease of chickpeas was significantly higher, where a combination of the most effective treatments were applied i.e. treatment with 50+50+50 NPK, Neem leaves and Shincar fungicides used, as a drench, was supplied to the resistant test line 99107. This treatment caused 95.00 percent reduction in disease incidence over the non- treated control.

 

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    Table of Contents  

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1 1 INTRODUCTION 1

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2 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 5

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3 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS 32

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4 4 RESULTS 50

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5 5 DISCUSSION

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6 6 SUMMARY

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7 7 RECOMMENDATIONS/CONCLUSIONS

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8 8 LITERATURE CITED

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9 9 APPENDIX

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