I= SOCIO – ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF RETURN MIGRATION AND THE ADJUSTMENT PROBLEMS IN PUNJAB Title of Thesis


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Title of Thesis

ANALYSIS OF EXAMINATION SYSTEM AT UNIVERSITY LEVEL IN PAKISTAN

Author(s)

Muhammad Jawwad Haider Shirazi

Institute/University/Department Details

University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi / Institute Of Education And Research

Session

2004

Subject

Education

Number of Pages

266

 

Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)

Examination System, University Level, Students, Teachers, The Commission On National Education, The Commission On Student Problems And Welfare, The National Committee On Examinations, The Education Policy, Helmick Report, Deakin' S Report,

 

Abstract

Since 1857 when the first three universities of Bombay. Calcutta and Madras were established on the pattern of London University, the system of examination has been under severe criticism. After partition more and more malpractices were tried by the students directly or indirectly. The examination has become the end itself and it has dominated the teaching. Now the entire teaching process is marks oriented instead of academic acceptance. The examination has received such prominence as well as disrepute that rest of teaching learning process has become insignificant. From 1857 to 2002 a significant number of commissions and committees were constituted to bring some useful reforms in the examination system. Their recommendations have been utilized and implemented hut still the credibility of examinations is doubtful. This system encourages indolence in students. It destroys the influence of teachers amongst the students and is directly responsible for indiscipline. It freezes curriculum. It restricts intellectual freedom exploration and zest for inquiry. It encourages rote memory. It establishes different standards of evaluation. It is unable to .judge the behavioral developments of a learner. The present study was undertaken with following objectives, (1) To identify the defects of the present system of examination in Pakistan: (2) To spell out the merits and demerits of objective and subjective types of tests: (3) To discuss the merits and demerits of external and internal evaluation; (4) To compare the results of external and internal systems of examination; (5) To compare the semester system and annual system; (6) To review the difficulties in the existing marking system: (7) To identify the inadequacies in the conduct of practical examinations; (8) To determine the impact of examination system on teaching-learning process: and (9) To make recommendations for the improvement of examination system. The population of the study was all the working university teachers and experts of examination system. The university students were also included in the population. Eight universities were randomly selected as sample. One hundred and twenty, university teachers, one hundred and sixty students and forty-five examination experts were included in the sample. Three questionnaires were developed for collection of data. After validation of questionnaires, the same were administered. Data collected were tabulated, analyzed and interpreted by using Chi-Square. Major findings included: (a) Examination enhances the command on subject ill the teachers and they try to improve their instructions to meet the desired standards. (b) Our examination system moves around the marks. Even examination staff and parents are also involved in the mal-practice. (c) In internal system the whole syllabus is covered in time. It is less expensive and less time consuming. There are lesser chances of mal-practices in this type of examination. (d) The pet selected questions are repeated in every examination and are also available in guess papers in market and students can easily guess these questions. On the basis of the findings following recommendations were made: (a) Creation of efficient machinery at university level is recommended for supervision to ensure objectivity in internal evaluation. (b) In all teaching universities external examination should be replaced by a system of internal and continuous evaluation by teachers themselves. (c) Continuous internal evaluation and maintenance of integrity of such evaluation. (d) For the purpose of uniformity, central marking system should be introduced and answer sheets of one university should be sent to another for evaluation. (e) Curriculum based internal-cum-external system of examination of equal weight age should be developed for continuous evaluation (Internal 50 + External 50). (f) Question/item Banks should be introduced. Question papers should not be only objective type, but also they should be factual interpretative creative and evaluative relevant to entire prescribed syllabus.

 

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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters

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    Table of Contents  

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1 1 INTRODUCTION 1

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2 2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 10

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3 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 31

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4 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 53

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5 5 SUMMARY

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6 6 CONCLUSIONS

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7 7 RECOMMENDATIONS

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8 8 LITERATURE CITIED

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9 9 APPENDICES

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