Title of Thesis
Identification and Analysis of Factors Hampering Women Empowerment
in Agricultural Decision Making and Extension Work in The Punjab,
Pakistan: A Case Study of District Okara
Department of Agricultural Extension
/ University of Agriculture Faisalabad
|Number of Pages
|Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
Identification, Analysis, Factors, Hampering, Women, Empowerment,.
Agricultural, Extension Punjab, Pakistan
Women in Pakistan comprised almost half of total population and
their participation rate in agricultural sector is about 70 percent.
Pakistani women actively participate in agriculture and contribute
in all areas including production of crops, livestock management
etc., along with normal domestic chores. Despite expanding role of
women in agricultural sector, extension services in Pakistan are
limited to men than women. The investigation was designed to measure
the position and contribution of rural women, their constraints in
decision making regarding agricultural activities and mainly how the
rural women can be empowered for sustainable agricultural
development in the district Okara, Punjab, Pakistan.
It was envisioned that women participation in extension activities
has rarely been investigated. A multistage random sampling
technique was used to collect the data from 480 respondents from
three Tehsils of the district. From each Tehsil, eight villages were
taken by using simple random sampling technique. Twenty farm
families were selected from each selected village at random and one
woman was further selected randomly from each selected household.
So, 480 farm families made a total of 480 respondents for the
study. The results show that a vast majority of women were
illiterate, having monthly family income less than one lac, having
small land farms, and living in joint family system. A large
proportion of the respondents reported that they had to face
problems and constraints in accessing agricultural extension
services in the context of social, economic, cultural, and political
issues. Bivariate analysis indicated that education level of women,
income of household, family type were significantly associated with
the selected variables of constraints women faced in decision making
process and their participation conditions in that process. Some
variables showed strong association e.g. education of women.
Ownership of land by women depicted strong significant with majority
of the selected variables. However, addressing theses constraints
effectively the situation of women empowerment can be improved in
rural areas. If they would be empowered financially and economically
they would become independent in their decisions, which can play a
vital role to empower women.