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Title of Thesis
Privatization of Agricultural Extension System in the Punjab, Pakistan: A SWOT Analysis

Shoukat Ali
Institute/University/Department Details
Division of Education and Extension, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
Agricultural Extension
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
Private agricultural extension system, cross-sectional research design.

Globally, there is a trend towards privatization due to poor performance of public extension services. Private agricultural extension system is considered demand-driven, cost-effective with efficient and quality service. In Pakistan, Privatization of agricultural extension system was started in 1988 when the then Government of Pakistan established a commission to look into the causes of poor performance of agricultural sector and suggest ways to improve its performance. The commission suggested the involvement of the private sector in reshaping agricultural extension. It was a major policy shift, in which the supply of inputs was shifted to private sector from public sector. Currently, 320 pesticide companies (private sector) are working in the Punjab. These companies not only provide pesticide products to the farmers through dealers but also provide advisory services to them. Privatization experiences in the world had mixed results. In some cases it has positive results while in other location the results are discouraging. The present study was conducted to analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats for private extension system in the Pakistani context where the literature is either silent or scanty about the performance of private sector extension. A cross-sectional research design was used for the study. The study was carried out in the Punjab province which comprises five cropping zones, out of which, three zones were selected purposively. Multistage proportionate sampling technique was used for the selection of respondents. A sample of 408 respondents was selected (136 from each zone) by using simple random sampling technique. Sample size was determined by using Fitzgibbon table (Fitzgibbon & Lynn, 1987). Similarly, a sample of 60 respondents from EFS of Syngenta (Pesticide Company) were also selected randomly by using the same table. The data were collected through personal interviews with the help of validated research instrument. The data, thus collected were analyzed by using computer software (i.e. SPSS). The results showed that a diagnostic skill of the EFS was strength of the system. Attributes of the EFS i.e. politeness and good conduct with farmers were also rated as strengths. Group discussion method was rated as strength of the system. However, subject matter coverage, target beneficiaries, extension approach and functions, communication, competencies of EFS of private extension found to be the weakness of the system. Limited opportunities existed for the demand of advisory services for specific crops at specific location and fee-based private extension system in the country. Overall it poses threat for the system. There were great discrepancies observed between the perceptions of the farmers and the EFS about the same questions. According to the EFS, the system has more strengths as compared to weaknesses. It is suggested that the steps should be taken to mitigate the weaknesses and ensure the strengths of the system. Similarly, threats should be converted into opportunities.

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1725 KB

S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 1 Introduction 1  


112 KB

  1.1 Pakistan: An Introduction 1
  1.2 Agricultural Economy of Pakistan 3
  1.3 Agricultural Extension in Pakistan: A Historical Perspective 5
  1.4 Criticism of Public Sector Extension: Global Perspective 16
  1.5 Criticism of Public Sector Extension: Pakistani context 19
  1.6 Emergence of Private Sector Extension in Pakistan 20
  1.7 Privatization Experience: Pakistani Context 21
  1.8 Need for the Project/Rational for Study 22
  1.9 General Objective 23
  1.10 Assumptions of the Study 24
  1.11 Limitations of the Study 24
2 2 Review of Literature 26






329 KB

  2.1 Importance of Review of Literature 26
  2.2 Paradigms of Extension 26
  2.3 Need to Reform Public Extension System 32
  2.4 Forms of Private Extension System 38
  2.5 Types of Advisory Services Provided by Private Extension System 44
  2.6 Target Beneficiaries of a Private Extension System 46
  2.7 Professional Competency of a Private Extension System 51
  2.8 Extension Methods/Channels 52
  2.9 Effectiveness of Communication 59
  2.10 Attitude and Preferences towards Private Extension System 60
  2.11 Demand and Willingness to Pay (WTP) for Advisory Services 66
  2.12 Generating Funds for Private Extension System 70
  2.13 Technology Adoption through Private Extension Services 73
  2.14 Impact of Private Extension System 73
  2.15 Challenges of the Private Extension System 85
  2.16 Favorable Factors for Privatization of Extension System 87
  2.17 Job Satisfaction of Extension Field Staff 87
  2.18 SWOT Analysis of Extension Systems 88
  2.19 Synthesis of Review of Literature 103
3 3 Methodology 105  



107 KB

  3.1 The Punjab: The Universe 105
  3.2 Research Design 108
  3.3 Selection of Pesticide Company: Syngenta 109
  3.4 The population of the Study 110
  3.5 Sampling procedure and sample size 112
  3.6 Constriction of Research Instruments 113
  3.7 Construction of scale 116
  3.8 Validity of the instruments 116
  3.9 Reliability of the instruments 117
  3.10 Data Collection 118
  3.11 Data Analysis 119
  3.12 Conceptual Framework for SWOT Analysis 120
4 4 Results and Discussion 125

552 KB

  4.1 Part 1 Quantitative Analysis--- Farmer Respondents 125
  4.2 Part 2 Quantitative Analysis---Private Extension Field Staff 173
5 5 Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations 217  

98 KB

  5.1 Summary 217
  5.2 Conclusions 219
  5.3 Demographic characteristics of EFS 223
  5.4 Recommendations 229
  5.5 Recommendations for future research 232
    References 233
84 KB
    Appendices 246
225 KB