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Title of Thesis

Screening of tomato cultivars against root knot nematodes and their biological management

Author (s)
Sajid Aleem Khan
Institute/University/Department Details
University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan
Plant Pathology
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
nematodes plant, incognita


Research was done on two important groups of nematodes plant parasitic nematodes and insect parasitic nematodes (entomopathogenic nematodes). Among plant parasitic nematodes root knot nematodes are the most important. It has a wide host range. Tomatoes are the most seriously affected by Meloidogyne incognita. Different varieties were tested against M. incognita for susceptibility, invasion and development of M. incognita. Moneymaker, Titano, California, Peelo, Nagina, Riogranade and Pakit were highly susceptible while Fonto, Tarnab, Lima, VF-400, PETO-86 and Samrutti were susceptible. Calmart VFN proved resistant. There was a positive relationship between the inoculum level of M. incognita and root weights and inverse relationship with shoot weights. Effect of plant age on plant susceptibility to nematode infection was also studied. Plant extract of neem, onion, garlic, tobacco, aloevera, cloves and chili was investigated for larval mortality and egg hatching of M. incognita. Mortality of nematodes increased with exposure time and extract concentration. Effect of plant extracts on root knot nematodes applied after root knot nematodes and bare dip root treatment was also studied on plant growth parameters plant height, fresh shoot weight, dry shoot weight and fresh root weight. Among all the plant extracts tested neem proved effective followed by onion and tobacco while chili proved less effective as compared to the other plant extracts. In the second part of thesis, effect of entomopathogenic nematodes S. asiaticum, S. glaseri, H. indica and H. bacteriophora on the development of M. incognita, effect of different inoculum levels, and time of application, live and dead EPN on RKN in addition to the persistence in soil was also studied. Suppression of M. incognita varied with application rate. The high application rates of EPN reduced M. incognita infestation as compared to low rates. Reduction in root knot nematode invasion and development was recorded. Numbers of EPN were reduced in non-sterilized soil. Both dead as well as live entomopathogenic nematodes and their material were responsible for lower invasion by M. incognita in tomato.


Full Thesis 

1043 KB

S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 1 Introduction 1
26 KB
2 2 Review of Literature 5


139 KB

  2.1 Effect of inoculum level of root knot nematodes on the plant growth 7
  2.2 Screening of tomato cultivars against root knot nematodes 11
  2.3 Effect of plant extracts on root knot nematodes 17
  2.4 Biological control of root knot nematodes by entomopathogenic nematodes 22
  2.5 Persistence, movement and survival of entomopathogenic nematodes in soil 25
3 3 Materials and Methods 28  

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  3.1 Collection of disease specimen 28
  3.2 Processing of soil and root samples 29
  3.3 Culturing of root knot nematodes 30
  3.4 Culturing of entomopathogenic nematodes 31
  3.5 Preparation of inocula of M. incognita and entomopathogenic nematodes 33
  3.6 Plant material 33
  3.7 Evaluation of experiments 36
4 4 Results 50  

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  4.1 Screening of different tomato cultivars/lines against M. incognita 50
  4.2 Invasion/development of root knot nematode (M. incognita) in various tomato cultivars 53
  4.3 Effect of inoculum level of root knot nematode M. incognita on tomato 57
  4.4 Effect of root knot nematode (M. incognita) on various plant growth stages of tomato 59
  4.5 Effect of plant extracts on egg hatching and larval mortality of root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) 61
  4.6 Effect of plant extract on root knot nematodes applied after M. incognita 63
  4.7 Effect of plant extracts on development of RKN as bare root dip treatment 65
  4.8 Effect of EPN on the development of root knot nematode (M. incognita) 66
  4.9 Effect of EPN at various densities and time of application (M. incognita) (applied 24h before RKN) 69
  4.10 Survival of entomopathogenic nematodes in sterilized vs nonsterilized soil 73
  4.11 Effect of dead and live entomopathogenic nematodes on root knot nematodes in tomato 75
5 5 Discussion 77
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6   Summary 86
20 KB
7   Literature Cited 89

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8   Appendices 120

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