ESTIMATION OF CONTAMINANTS IN GROUNDWATER AND ESTABLISHMENT OF PROTECTION ZONES IN WAH CANTT. AREA

Mohammad, Saleem Khan (2013) ESTIMATION OF CONTAMINANTS IN GROUNDWATER AND ESTABLISHMENT OF PROTECTION ZONES IN WAH CANTT. AREA. Doctoral thesis, University of the Punjab, Lahore.

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Abstract

The wah cantonment area (Dhamrah Kas Basin) Pakistan used to have sweet aquifer system. Due to heavy industrialization, mining activities and poor sewage system in the recent past this system has been grossly contaminated. Both chemical and biological contaminants have reached alarming values, causing health hazards environmental problems. Interdisciplinary investigational techniques (hydrogeological reconnaissance, geophysical survey, testhole drilling, installation of tubewells and capacity test) have been used for elaboration of subsurface hydrogeology in the Wah cantonment area. An ancient valley fill deposit has been discovered and proven with the help of geoelectrical soundings testholes and dugwells. A multilayered aquifer system, identified can be significantly used to exploit groundwater. Estimation of groundwater contaminants (major ions, trace elements and bacteria) have been estimated by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and multiple tube method. Water samples were collected from a large number of dugwells and testholes(from deep layers). The results have been compared with World Health Organization guideline values and united States Environmental protection Agency recommended levels. An increase of more than 100 milligram litre in total dissolved solids have been found from 1981 to 1995 due to heavy industrialization and other anthropogenic activities. There is a sharp rise in few contaminants such as Ca, Mg, Na, and Cl. The estimation of trace elements indicate that the average values of Cr, Pb and Cd have crossed the recommended level of world health Organization and United States Environmental protection Agency while the Cu, Zn, Fe and Ni are below the recommended limits. The estimation of coliform and faecal coliform bacterial indicate a very severe level of bacterial contamination is the disposal of sewage waste through dugwell system in recently established settlements in private sector. Keeping in view the role of geology, geohydrology, mining activities urbanization, industrialization, industrial effluents, effluents, wastes and municipal water schemes a rehabilitation programme is proposed and protectional zones are suggested

Item Type: Thesis (Doctoral)
Uncontrolled Keywords: contaminant, groundwater, wah cantt, dhamrah kas basin, trace elements, bacteria, waste dumps, cyclic fluctuations, colifrom, faecal colifrom
Subjects: Q Science > QE Geology
Depositing User: Muhammad Khan Khan
Date Deposited: 26 Oct 2016 05:47
Last Modified: 26 Oct 2016 05:47
URI: http://eprints.hec.gov.pk/id/eprint/2756

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