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Title of Thesis

Effects of Cable Television on Women in Pakistan: A comparative study on heavy and light viewers in Lahore

Author (s)
Anjum Zia
Institute/University/Department Details
Lahore College for Women University, Lahore
Mass Communication
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)


This study investigates the “effects of cable television on the life patterns of women in Lahore, Pakistan” through survey using interviews’ schedule as a tool of data collection. It targeted 432 women aged 18-40 years and viewing cable television for a minimum two years. The study recorded the respondent’s consumption patterns, level of viewing, preferred channels and programs, favorite watching time, control over remote and restrictions on viewing. It crossed checked the above factors with the level of viewing along with demographic characteristics of the respondents. The major hypothesis studied was “greater the exposure to cable television greater the impact on the lives of women.” The sub-hypothesis included ‘heavy viewers have greater effect on their activities, family and social interaction patterns, cultural practices, domestic and personal expenditure, and they are more influenced by the television characters especially depicting western and urban Indian women than the moderate and light viewers. The data was analyzed through univariate and bivariate statistical procedures and the results are presented in two categories: i.e. general and major findings of hypothesis testing. The general findings revealed that the majority of respondents were aged 31 to 40 years, belonged to the middle and upper middle class, were graduates but unemployed, and were heavy viewers. Majority respondents had cable connection for the last two years, indicating increasing popularity of cable television in Lahore, also making it the main source of entertainment. There is no link between demographic characteristics and consumption patterns. However, the respondents complained that men had more rights to watch cable television than women. The statistical test chi-square was applied for testing the hypothesis, confirming that ‘greater the exposure to cable television greater the effect on the lives of women’. It confirmed that heavy viewing affected household and other activities of the women like newspaper reading, going to cinema, the meals cooking and serving schedule, their domestic or personal expenditure and interaction with friends or and relatives. They were prone to accepting the role, culture and lifestyle of western and Indian women watched on the cable channels. The study also identified a few areas for future researchers and made recommendations towards their improvement.




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S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 1 Introduction 1
  1.1 Statement of Problem, Objectives 2
  1.2 Hypothesis 3
  1.3 Rationale 4
143 KB
  1.4 Brief History of Cable Television, World History of Cable Television 5
  1.5 Development of Television in Pakistan 11
2 2 Literature Review 31
  2.1 International Studies on Television/Cable Television 31
  2.2 National Studies on Televisions/Cable Television 43

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  2.3 Studies on Women 48
3 3 Theoretical Framework 51
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  3.1  Uses and Gratification 52
  3.2 Cultivation Theory 55
  3.3 Social Learning Theory 58
4 4 Research Methodology  

(Part I) Hypothesis and Operationalisation of the Concepts

  4.1 Major Hypothesis 61
  4.2 Variables of the Study 62
  4.3 Conceptualization 63
    (Part II) Research Design 73
  4.4 Survey, Sampling Method 73
  4.5 Data Collection 77
  4.6 Data Processing 78
5 5

Data Analysis and Interpretation (Part-I) Data Analysis-General Findings

6 6 Conclusion and Recommendation 157

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    References 173