Pakistan Research Repository Home
 

Title of Thesis

Mangroves of the Active Indus Delta- Changes and their causes

Author (s)
Mahmood Khalid Qamar
Institute/University/Department Details
National College of Business Administration and Economics Lahore
Session
2009
Subject
Environmental Management
Number of Pages
127
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
Global Information System (GIS), indus delta, mangrove, diversity index

Abstract

Extensive GIS and field studies of Indus delta were conducted during 2005-08 to determine the influence of reduced flow of river Indus on dynamics of Indus delta changes as well as of its vegetation degradation during 49 years period from 1953 to 2001. There was huge loss of 67% in dense forests with slight reduction of 23% in the river flow in initial 25 years period whereas there was a minor loss of only 9% of dense forests in spite of huge reduction of 57% of river flow in next 24 years period. It was noted that lagged effect of river water dilution remained variably effective from 5-7 months after floods. It was further determined that Indus delta mangrove forests were not degraded due to higher salinity levels. Comparative figures fordifferent parameters of forest cover, forest density, annual growth rate as well as Shannon’s diversity Index H (richness) and EH (evenness) for least flooded zone (23.12 ppt) and most flooded zone (18.74 ppt) were 60.58 vs. 56.19, 598 vs. 202, 17.46% vs. 18.08%, 0.45 vs. 0.08 and 0.40 vs. 0.07 respectively. It was determined that reduced flow of river Indus had no adverse effect on delta erosion, accretion as well as mangrove forest degradation as such. It was apparent that biological interventions of various nature and magnitude were responsible for the said degradation.

 

 

 


3106 KB

S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
  0    
1 1 Introduction 1
  1.1 General 1
  1.2 World Overview 1
  1.3 Importance of Mangroves 3
300 KB
  1.4 Mangroves of Pakistan 5
  1.5 The Problems - Realities and Myths 11
 
2 2 Literature Review 15
  2.1 General Introduction 15

170 KB

 

  2.2 GIS / Remote Sensing Based Land Use Studies 20
  2.3 Sea Surface Water Salinity 23
  2.4. Mangrove Vegetation 26
  2.5 Socio Economic aspects of Mangroves 37
       
       
3 3 Research Methodology 45
  3.1 Hypothesis, Experimental Design and Statistical Analysis 45
  3.2 GIS / Remote Sensing Studies 49


391 KB

  3.3 Sea Surface Water Sampling 50
  3.4 Mangrove Forest Studies 51
       
       
4 4 Results and Discussion 55
1658 KB

 

 

 

  

64 KB

  4.1 Aerial Photography and Satellite Imagery Studies 55
  4.2 Sea Surface Water Salinity Dynamics 78
  4.3 Mangrove Forest Vegetation Studies 82
  4.4 Conclusions and Recommendations 92
       
       
       
5 5 References 98
       
       
       
       

 

34 KB

 

6 6 Appendix 111