In the name of Allah most merciful and beneficent Salutations and complements for Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) Thereafter Seeking shield of Allah from awfulness of Satin
All praises to "Allah subhan-ut-tallah (sut)" who descended holy Qur'an to differentiate/distinguish truth from the deceit, millions of salutations and complements for Muhammad (PBUH) who practically described and demonstrated the teaching of Qur' an (the words of Allah sut). Most of the verses in holy Qur'an comprise of instances, examples, illustrations and cases through which Allah explained "tauhid", divination, prophecies, prophet hood, "shirk" heaven and hell, rewards and punishment, belives and related issues in the easiest of manners.
The creator and sole owner of universe in order to keep humanity of on the right and precise track declared Qur'an to be the focus and center of every activity and directive for the whole universe. Therefore, it's obligatory and compulsory for all Muslims to take advantage and benefit from the teachings of Qur'an.
Allah created people of different colors, creeds, size and shape likewise mental capabilities of every human being also differ. Keeping intellectual capabilities of every individual in view Allah sut various issue at different places in Qur'an in such a manner that each reader is facilitated to memorize and register a variety of events in their mind.
Allah narrates in The Cow Chapter 1, verse 26 that;
Lo! Allah disdaineth not to coin the similitude even of gnat. Those who believe know that it is the truth from their Lord; but those who disbelieve say: What doth Allah wish (to teach) by such a similitude?
He misleadeth many thereby, and He guideth many thereby; and He misleadeth thereby many miscreants;
Exemplary explanations lead many to follow the correct directives and divine path and prevented many from immoral and wicked likewise in The Spider Chapter 29 verse number 43 Allah sut explained to disobedient that;
As for these similtitudes, We coin them for mankind. but none will grasp their meaning save the wise.
Examples have a vital role in describing complicated matters and issues. Many complications that are not easily understood if explained using appropriate examples (and if the explainee wants to learn) are clarified with ease and understood. And if the explainer is Allah sut himself then ignorant shall be considered ill fated. That's why Qur'an and Hadith have used examples so to explain Islamic teaching's and law with ease.
Using "Examples" have not only been refrained in Qur'an but were also used in past divine revelations like Bible, Commandments, Psalms of David, Abraham and Moses.
The most prominent orators, apostle, missionaries in order to exhibit their linguistic powers, provide descriptions of difficult issues used elaborations, illustrations and examples to simplify/clarify their point of view and convince the ordinary people. Their sermons have many examples beautifully incorporated and they seek assistance from these examples. That's why in Qur'an Allah sut said himself that these examples have been given / used for the benefit of the believers / followers and are meant for those who have knowledge and vision.
This is the reason that a large part of Hadith's of Muhammad (pbuh) consists of examples covering every aspect of life and relevant issues to register the preaching and sermons.
When someone intends to learn basics and important issues of Islamic faith and builts a link with Qur'an than thou finds out only the guidance for divine faith but also regarding the day to day issues of life in great descriptions and well defined. This is the greatness of Allah (sut) that when it was felt that any matter, directive or issue would be difficult to deduce from and has felt complication he used such an appropriate example that is evident not only to learned but also to common person. Hence is the reason
that Qur' an is easy to be understood by all common and special, knowledgeable and less knowledgeable as per their mental capabilities and is a non-exhausting continuous source of complete and perfect guidance.
Allah sut have kept grammatical a balance between examples and examplee. In other words for whatever the issue was, examples have been used accordingly e.g when referred to earth being worthless the example was similar as used by Muhammad (pbuh) quoting the in-persistence of the world said that had it be equivalent to feather of the mosquito for Allah sut then Allah would not have give a sip of water to non-believer.
Qur'an is based on logic that's why specific examples are mentioned in it to resolve various issues according to consensus and accord. How humanity can benefit from these examples? It's only when the underlying logic is understood. The title/subject of this study "Qur'anic examples in the perspective of Historic and literary background" was selected. This research study comprises of six chapters under following headings;
Chapter 1: This chapter presents 80 such verses sought after close examination! reading that are straight examples or come under the criteria of example through which Allah sut has directed/guided Muslims.
Qur'an is an everlasting treasure of logic and edification one of whose prove is that since the time it descended till to-date its chapters, verses, words and alphabets have been a source of continuous research for religious experts and scholars and modern science, other information and discoveries from time to time are not only authenticated but also on the increase.
It is the intention to say the surely Qur'an contains many other verses having examples or illustrations whose depth has not been attained as yet by me for which I take the responsibility that my lack of knowledge has been the hurdle.
Chapter 2: Purpose and intention of this chapter is Qur'anic examples. The chapter focuses on issues that are responsible and basis for Qur'anic examples or what is the issue that led Allah sut to illustrate and elaborate it because Allah sut did not create minutest creature without purpose so definitely there would have a reason for using these examples.
It is in human nature that if some issue bothers him then he tries to resolve it or learns about the solution. Likewise, one who recites Qur'an and tries to grasp its content has many queries in mind to why a particular example is used, what is the purpose and reason behind that caused its usage etc. Hereto human nature depicts its influence till reason, background, pro and cons are not evident. When this is clear it makes the job not only easy but interesting too.
Intention for clarification of purpose is to facilitate readers on background of past and forthcoming events before narrating the actual to prepare mind for understanding the matter. Another reason for description of example in advance is to generate realization that what earlier generations have done and how were they treated by Allah sut. For this purpose detail descriptive writings of prominent religious scholars were screened to high light their point of view regarding various issues.
Chapter 3: Title of this chapter is description of Qur'anic examples. Under this scenario examples from chapter 1 are described in depth for easy understanding and clarification that makes them clearly evident as the existence of Sun enabling even ordinary people to understand what Allah sut intends to illustrate. Other important aspect is analysis of the issue from every angle is given that only an ill fated whose destiny is pre-decided would fail to understand rest can not ignore or refute from reality hence examples once clarified can solve many related issues and help to achieve the targets. The descriptions presented in this chapter are in the light of most authentic books of Tafaseer that further reveals and illuminate the contents.
Chapter 4: Its heading is History of Qur'anic examples. Before going into the details of this chapter it is worth mentioning that Verses that were descended in Madinah have more authentic historical basis compared to the ones that were descended in Makkah because in the early regime written records were not prepared with consistence.
Therefore, sometimes it is possible to provide complete historic record of events keeping view the sequence of versus as presented in Qur'an. If one or more examples are given in a verse or A chapter than its historic importance and era when it was descended is considered before further description in following manner;
Name of Vesrses and reason of its name
b) Period when it descended
c) Reason for its descendence
It is beyond doubt that information, directives and guidance in Qur'an is eternal and illuminant till the dooms day this is evident from the fact that reading of Qur'an in current era shows similarity of events with the past incidences of different messengers or prophets of Allah sut or their followers. Therefore the chapter elaborates references of historic era where allied examples have been presented as authentic prove. For achieving this purpose well known and authentic Tafaseer's have been consulted to illuminate historic examples.
Chapter 5: This chapter depicts literary importance of Qur'anic illustrations. We all are aware that global themes and subjects are submissive to Allah's logic. Any knowledge religious or otherwise is not beyond Allah's wisdom and has born out of Allah's treasure of acquaintance and guidance. Allah sut always intends the benefit of his creation that is reason path of seeking education is termed as path to heaven. Universally Allah has concealed many things that are beneficial for the best creation "the mankind". When persons using illustrations can present solution of intricate, complicated and complex issues how can any thing be difficult for Allah sut. Absolutely, the literary importance of instances used by Allah sut is beyond the mental capabilities of human being and it is difficult to grasp it in true context hence the examples/ explanations given by religious scholars according their perceptions are presented in the chapter for registering the literary importance of past illustrations.
Chapter 6: Title of this chapter is Illustrations by Prophet Muhammad (Pbuh). Qur'an is a complete written and informative "charter of life" describing various aspects of life in great details that needs to be understood and Allah facilitated this requirement through appointment of prophet Muhammad who practically demonstrated teachings/examples in Qur'an.
Muhammad (Pbuh) not only clearly delivered the message of Allah sut but also practically demonstrated its implementation that attracted people to accept Islam as their religion believing its genuineness, legitimacy and truth. Rich and poor, intellects and non-intellects, male or female, child or elders, youth and people of every walk of life gathered around Muhammad (Pbuh). Under the circumstances and keeping in view the mantle capabilities of every person it was not only a difficult but an impossible task to deliver the divine message. However, the last prophet of Allah sut,
Muhammad (Pbuh) presented and made the Qur'anic directives, instances, guidance and issues, easy for people of every walk of life in such a way that its legitimacy was well evident and they departed from skepticism and cynicism.
Bottom-line is that Hadith's contain many instances and illustrations and it is also evident that nobody could better explain and securely register the divine message and issue covered in Qur'an except Muhammad (Pbuh). In this chapter few Hadith's covering almost every aspect of important issues are presented.
I am thankful to All mighty ALLAH that he selected me for this work and than Assistant Professor Dr.Shehnaz Ghazi, Former Dean faculty of Islamic learning Professor Dr. Abdul Rasheed, Professor Dr. Jalal-ud-deen noori Dean faculty of Islamic learning and Professor Dr. Moeen-ud-deen Aquil Head of the urdu department university of Karachi for their kindness and guidance.
I am thankful to Chairman Pakistan Agricultural Research Council Islamabad, Director General Southern-zone Agricultural Research Centre and Director Grain Storage Research Institute.
I am also thankful to Director Coastal Agricultural Research Centre, Mr. Sohail Iqbal (Artist), Faseeh Ahmad (Social Executive), Wajid Mehmud, Abu baker, staff of faculty office and my family members for their co-operation.
In the end I am subjugated to Allah sut that opportunity to serve Qur'an was entrusted on me, and pray to Allah sut that my meager literary efforts be accepted by Allah sut for pardoning me and enable me and my readers to benefit from this manuscript and strengthen us to put it into practice.
No one but Allah can instigate.
PREFACE: (REVISED AND MODIFIED)
In accordance with the directives of External Examiner following Three (3) chapters have been added in the Thesis.
CHAPTER -7: In this chapter initially Qurani examples are divided into two main groups Makki and Madani examples and than topic wise in 59 groups.
CHAPTER - 8: In this chapter work done by famous Muslim scholars on examples and Qurani examples is presented.
CHAPTER - 9: In this chapter importance of Qurani examples in Urdu is briefly described