I= BEHAVIOR THERAPY IT,S APPLICABILITY IN THE REDUCTION OF MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR OF AUTISTIC CHILDREN
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Title of Thesis
BEHAVIOR THERAPY IT,S APPLICABILITY IN THE REDUCTION OF MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR OF AUTISTIC CHILDREN

Author(s)
UZMA AHMAD
Institute/University/Department Details
Institute of Clinical Psychology/ University Of Karachi
Session
2007
Subject
Psychology
Number of Pages
200
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
behavior therapy, maladaptive behavior, autistic children, negative reinforcement, positive reinforcement, mental retardation

Abstract
The present research was designed to study the applicability of Behavior Therapy in autistic children by using its techniques of positive and negative reinforcement. It was hypothesized that the behavior treatment both with positive and negative reinforcement would be effective to reduce maladaptive behavior of autistic children. It was further hypothesized that positive reinforcement would be more effective as compared to negative reinforcement and also there would be significant a difference in treatment outcomes with respect to the three degrees of autistic disorder (mild, moderate and severe).

The sample comprised of 120 autistic children, 56 girls and 64 boys, belonging to all socioeconomic levels with the age limit of 6 to 12 years. The selection was done after confirmation of Autistic Disorder with the administration of Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS, developed by Schopler, Reichler & Renner, 1986). The sample comprised of children coming independently or on the referral of different consultants and institutions of special education to a neuromuscular rehabilitation center of Karachi. It was divided into three equal groups, two treatment and one control group. The treatment packages consisted of the use of positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement. Previously, each child was made confirmed for displaying anyone of the three maladaptive behaviors taken for research purpose (Hitting, Crying and Non -compliance).

In order to determine the possible causes of target behaviors and selection of an effective reinforcer, Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS by Durand, 1.1990), was administered. The record of occurrence of target behaviors before and after the completion of 30 sessions was taken carefully.

T test for independent mean and ANOVA were applied for statistical analysis .It was concluded that behavior treatment, either with positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement is effective to reduce maladaptive behavior in autistic children. It was further concluded that positive reinforcement is more effective when compared with negative reinforcement. However no significant difference in treatment outcomes was found with respect to three degrees of autism.

Additional findings indicate that there are no significant differences in treatment outcomes of autistic children with respect to gender and different levels of co-existing mental retardation. However it was confirmed by results that autistic children with moderate level of mental retardation show better treatment results as compared to autistic children with mild level of mental retardation.

Recommendations and suggestions in addition to limitations of study have also been mentioned to be considered for future researches on behavioral treatment of autistic children.

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2251.1 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
128.11 KB
2 1 Introduction
655.21 KB
  1.1 Pervasive Development Disorders 1
  1.2 Symptoms And Characteristics 4
  1.3 Neuro -Psychological Diagnosis Of Autism 11
  1.4 Co Morbid Disorders And Conditions 16
  1.5 Antecedent Factors Of Autims 18
  1.6 Prevalence Of Autism 25
  1.7 Course And Prognosis Of Autism 26
  1.8 Treatment Approaches 28
  1.9 Maladaptive Behavior In Autistic Children 38
  1.10 Behavior Treatment Of Maladaptive Behavior 40
  1.11 Functional Analysis In Behavior Treatment 51
  1.12 Important Factors In Behavior Treatment 53
  1.13 Efficacy Of Operant Techniques In Treatment Of Maladaptive Behavior 60
  1.14 Role Of Reinforcers In Behavior Change 71
  1.5 The Generalization And Maintenance Of Behavior Treatment 77
3 2 Problem 75
137.39 KB
4 3 Hypotheses 90
27.04 KB
5 4 Methods 93
124.29 KB
6 5 Result 108
285.72 KB
7 6 Discussion 127
280.75 KB
  6.1 Additional Findings 145
  6.2 Limitations Of The Study 152
  6.3 Recommendations 155
8 7 References 160
869.53 KB
  7.1 Appendix A
  7.2 Appendix B
  7.3 Appendix C