I= THE CONJUNCTIVE USE OF GROUNDWATER MODELING AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) TO STUDY THE WATER RESOURCES OF UPPER JHELUM SCARP AREA IN INDUS BASIN
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Title of Thesis
THE CONJUNCTIVE USE OF GROUNDWATER MODELING AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) TO STUDY THE WATER RESOURCES OF UPPER JHELUM SCARP AREA IN INDUS BASIN

Author(s)
ARSHAD ASHRAF
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Earth Sciences/ Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
Session
2008
Subject
Earth Sciences
Number of Pages
118
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
groundwater modeling, geographic information system, water resources, upper jhelum scarp area, indus basin, remote sensing, landcover, landuse

Abstract
A three-dimensional numerical groundwater flow model was developed in conjunction with Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote sensing (RS) techniques for Upper Chaj Doab area of Indus basin, Pakistan. The approach has provided efficient way of analyzing and monitoring groundwater resource of the area. The GIS was used as additive tool to develop supportive data for numerical groundwater flow modeling, integration, analysis and presentation of image processing and modeling results. The thematic layers of landforms, landuse, hydrology, infrastructure and climate were developed using Geographic Information System (GIS). The RS data was used to analysis surface hydrological conditions and landcover/landuse status in order to conceptualize the recharge/discharge sources involved in groundwater system and to observe the behaviour of waterlogging and salinity in the area.

A steady-state model was calibrated for 1985 hydrologic conditions when water levels in the aquifer were near equilibrium. The model was calibrated to an average residual of 0.06m and variance of 1.46m using automatic parameter method - PEST. The model was calibrated again in transient-state condition over a six-month period of wet period using steady-state heads as initial condition. Using the model, values of recharge, hydraulic conductivity and specific yield were calibrated for the aquifer.

The calibrated model was used to predict future changes in piezometric heads from year 2006 to 2020. The piezometric heads indicated initially a rising trend from 1988 to 1999, then a declining trend from 1999 onward from where a breakthrough in watertable trend was observed. The groundwater development was studied under different scenarios of extreme drought and flood conditions, and variable rates of groundwater abstraction. Finally, based on the results, better strategies for groundwater planning and management have been outlined.

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2900.27 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
111.43 KB
2 1 Introduction
102.07 KB
  1.1 Introduction 1
  1.2 Purpose and Scope of work 3
  1.3 Previous Work 3
  1.4 Location and Accessibility 4
3 2 Site Description & Hydrogeological Setup
253.28 KB
  2.1 Topography and Relief 7
  2.2 Climate 7
  2.3 General Geology 8
  2.4 Soils 10
  2.5 Hydrology 14
  2.6 Agriculture 14
  2.7 Forestry 16
  2.8 Irrigation 16
  2.9 Hydrogeology 17
4 3 Spatial Data Modeling In Geographic Information System (GIS)
313.04 KB
  3.1 GIS and groundwater Modeling 19
  3.2 GIS Functions 20
  3.3 GIS Data Models 22
  3.4 GIS Analysis Functions 23
  3.5 Data entry and preparation 25
  3.6 Spatial Analysis in GIS 26
5 4 Remote Sensing (RS) And Landcover Mapping
330.81 KB
  4.1 RS technique in Hydrological Analysis 33
  4.2 Characteristics of RS data used 34
  4.3 Image processing 36
  4.4 Analysis of RS data 37
  4.5 Landcover Mapping 40
6 5 Conceptualization Of Regional Groundwater Flow Model
548.49 KB
  5.1 Numerical Modeling of Groundwater Flow 44
  5.2 Conceptual Model of Groundwater Flow 44
  5.3 Description of Finite Element Model 47
  5.4 General Formulation 50
  5.5 Derivation of Model Input Data 64
  5.6 Model Area and Grid 65
  5.7 Model Input Parameters 66
7 6 Numerical Groundwater Flow Modeling
637.52 KB
  6.1 Modeling Approach 74
  6.2 Steady State Modeling
  6.3 Unsteady-State (Transient) Modeling 89
8 7 Prediction & Future Scenarios
711.95 KB
  7.1 Strategy for Development of Stress Periods (1985-2020) 97
  7.2 Model Prediction 98
  7.3 Groundwater Budget 109
  7.4 Development of Future Scenarios 110
9 8 Conclusions & Recommendations
53.31 KB
  8.1 Conclusions
  8.2 Recommendations
  8.4 References 118