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Title of Thesis

Institute/University/Department Details
National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad
Number of Pages
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
second language reading skills, psycholinguistics, reading comprehension, socio-cognitive process, cognitive-based process, teaching skills

Second language reading skills are the most important skills to make a person functionally literate to face the challenges of the modern world, whereas Pakistani learners lack functional competency at advance level of second language reading. Basic bottleneck is the ignorance of the factors involved in reading and inappropriate teaching skills. Difficulty in reading relates to the mental faculty of learning, motivation, perception, reasoning and problem solving of learners. Pragmatic factors generated by socio- cultural and situational elements also play a vital role. The research done in the field indicates that there are external as well a internal forces working while second language teaching and learning takes place, therefore, if these factors are ignored while planning lessons the desired results can not be achieved.

Assumptions about psychological processes have always been present in decisions about course content and teaching strategies often without the teacher being aware of them. It is commonly observed that many English language teachers in Pakistan are trained to be ignorant; to rely on the opinions of others instead of their own. There are two major implications for a language teacher, one is related to "teaching skills" and the second to "understanding" the process involved in it. The research done in the field confirms that essential element in literacy instruction is "the teacher" and that literacy is not accomplished through the "external controls" of prescribed programmes. To solve the problem we need to run professional development programs and cultivate the culture of "action research" in our educational institutions by acknowledging and improving the socio-cultural status of teachers.

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2322.37 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
92.14 KB
2 1 Introduction 1
174.91 KB
  1.1 Research Question 4
  1.2 Sub-Questions 7
  1.3 Rationale 7
  1.4 Aims and Objectives of the Study 8
3 2 Theoretical Frame Work 25
422.66 KB
  2.1 Thought and Language 29
  2.2 The Psycholinguistic Theory 34
  2.3 Psycholinguistics and Reading 38
  2.4 Reading Comprehension: Cognitive-Based Process 41
  2.5 Reading Comprehension: Socio-Cognitive Process 43
  2.6 Reading Comprehension As Transactional 43
  2.7 Reading Comprehension As Transactional Socio-Psycholinguistic 44
  2.8 Language and Cognition with Reference to L2 Learners 45
  2.9 Reading Comprehension as Influenced by Attitude 49
  2.10 Reading as A Dynamic Process 50
  2.11 Reading as A Decoding Process 51
  2.12 Duration of Fixation 52
  2.13 Word Recognition 52
  2.14 Lexical Features 59
  2.15 Linguistics and Reading 60
  2.15 Knowledge and Skills in Reading 61
  2.16 The Purpose of Reading 62
  2.17 The Style of Reading 63
  2.18 Readability and Reading for Learning 63
  2.19 Variables in Reading. 67
  2.20 Individual Learning Differences 74
4 3 Impact Of Socio-Cultural Factors On Second Language Reading 82
315 KB
  3.1 Culture: Definition 83
  3.2 Motivation and Its Impact on Learning 86
  3.3 The Integration of Culture in Language Learning 89
  3.4 Skills of Reading and Language Processing in Second Situation 93
  3.5 Socio-Cultural Approaches to Teaching and Teacher's Role 97
  3.6 Socio-Cultural Theory and Second Language Classroom Interaction 100
  3.7 Reading Models 102
  3.8 Impact of Socio-Cultural Theory on Teaching Reading In Pakistan 107
  3.9 Understanding Action Research for Reading Teachers 109
  3.10 Reading Teachers - Some Considerations 114
5 4 Research Methodology
129.33 KB
  4.1 Survey 127
  4.2 Identification of Data 130
  4.3 Data Collection Tools 130
  4.4 Theoretical Framework and Scheme of Study 132
6 5 Data Presentation And Interpretation
720.61 KB
  5.1 Analysis of the Questionnaire 143
  5.2 Analysis of Interviews 167
7 6 Discussion And Conclusion
799.34 KB
  6.1 Teaching Through Translation 192
  6.2 Reading Syllabus in Pakistan 195
  6.3 Psycholinguistic Elements 200
  6.4 Difference in English and Urdu Discourse 203
  6.5 Importance of English as A Means of Imparting Knowledge 204
  6.6 Integration of Language Skills 208
  6.7 Cognitive Research of Reader 217
  6.8 Study Skills 219
  6.9 Concluding Remarks 234
  6.10 Works Cited 242