The purpose of this study was twofold. First, the study was to document intrinsic, extrinsic, general, and facet-specific levels of job satisfaction of the head teachers (Toba Tek Singh) in the Punjab as measured by the MSQ. Secondly, demographically intrinsic, extrinsic, general, and facet specific levels of job satisfaction and the influence of selected demographic characteristics on general job satisfaction was investigated.
The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, 1967 Long Form (MSQ) was chosen to measure satisfaction levels of intrinsic, extrinsic general, and twenty job facets. An individual data sheet was used to collect information about selected personal and unit related characteristics. To collect the data 207 surveys were delivered to elementary school head teachers in district Toba Tek Singh of the Punjab.
The first question addressed by the study was: What are the intrinsic, extrinsic and general satisfaction levels of elementary school head teachers (Toba Tek Singh) in the Punjab as measured by the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire? The second question was: What are the intrinsic, extrinsic and general satisfaction levels according to the demographic variables; gender, age, degree, experience, school location, and school size?
The third question was: What is the satisfaction level for each of the 20 dimensions of the job measured by the MSQ? And the fourth question addressed by the study was: What is the satisfaction level for the 20 dimensions of the job according to the demographic variables; age, gender, degree, experience, school location, and school size?
Using the instrument Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire, the intrinsic, extrinsic and general satisfaction scores indicate that these head teachers were "Satisfied" with their jobs. The head teachers with demographic characteristics younger and older, females, bachelor degree holders, minimum and maximum experienced, from urban and smaller schools obtained high means than head teachers with middle age, males, master degree holders, medium experienced, from rural and larger schools, for intrinsic, extrinsic, and general satisfaction. Demographically, significant differences were found among four demographic variables (age, gender, experience, and school location) with intrinsic and general job satisfaction. The head teachers younger and older age, females, minimum and maximum experienced, and from urban schools were intrinsically and generally more satisfied than the head teachers with middle age, males, medium experienced and of rural schools. However, there were significant differences among only different age groups with extrinsic satisfaction. The head teachers of younger and older age were extrinsically more satisfied than the head teacher with middle age. Therefore, no significant differences were observed for degree status and school size with intrinsic, extrinsic and general job satisfaction.
The mean scores for the 20 dimensions ranged from "Slightly Satisfied" to "Very Satisfied. Compensation, Working Conditions, Social Status, and School System Policies and Practices ranked the lowest in the hierarchy respectively, which indicates that the head teachers found to be "Slightly Satisfied" with these dimensions of job. Advancement, Social Service, Creativity, Recognition, Supervision Human Relations, Security, Independence, Colleagues, Supervision Technical, Authority, Responsibility, Achievement, Ability Utilization, and Variety ranked the middle in the hierarchy which indicates that for these fourteen dimensions of job, The head teachers were found to be "Satisfied". Moral Values and Activity ranked the highest in the hierarchy respectively which indicates that the head teachers were "Very Satisfied" with these dimensions of the job.
Demographically, younger and older age head teachers were significantly more satisfied with all dimensions of the job than the middle aged head teachers. Female head teachers scored more with every dimension than male head teachers. Therefore, female head teachers were significantly more satisfied with Ability Utilization, Activity, Authority, Colleagues, Creativity, Moral Values, Recognition, Responsibility, Social Service, Social Status, Advancement, School Policies and Practices, Supervision Human Relations, Supervision Technical, and Working Conditions than male head teachers. No significant differences were found between the head teachers with bachelor degree and the head teachers with master degree for any dimension of the job. The head teachers, minimum and maximum experienced scored more than the head teachers with medium experience on all dimensions of the job. However, the head teachers with minimum or maximum experience were significantly more satisfied with Activity, Authority, Colleagues, Creativity, Moral Values, Recognition, Responsibility, Social Service, Social Status, Variety, School Policies and Practices, Security and Working Conditions than head teachers with medium experience. Urban head teachers were significantly more satisfied with Activity, Creativity, Independence, Recognition, Social Service, Social Status, Variety, Advancement, School System Policies and Practices, Security and Working Conditions than head teachers located in rural areas. Although the head teachers with smaller schools scored more than head teachers with larger school for most of the dimensions of job, however, significant differences were found only with two dimensions. Head teachers with smaller schools were more satisfied with Social Status and Compensation than the head teachers with larger schools.
In this study two demographic variables, Degree Status and School Size found to be not the predictors of job satisfaction while four demographic variables, Age, Gender, Experience and School Location, were found to be important predictors of job satisfaction.
Results based on this study provide a sufficient ground to frame the following recommendations. (a) Satisfaction level for compensation may be improved with a big rise in salaries of the head teachers. (b) Working conditions may be improved with provision of missing facilities. (c) The satisfaction level for social status can be improved by providing more chances to head teachers to intermingle with important personalities. Some like VIPs preferences should be given to the head teachers in different spheres (hospital, railway, bank, court etc.) of life as well as in the whole community. (d) Governmental steps like new dismissal/termination rules, privatization, stoppage of move-over and advance increments, and freezing of house rent should be eliminated and government also needs to be sure how the new policies and practices are in the favor of the head teachers.