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Title of Thesis
BIODIVERSITY AND ETHNOBOTANY OF HIMALAYAN REGION POONCH VALLY, AZAD KASHMIR PAKISTAN

Author(s)
MUHAMMAD AZAM KHAN
Institute/University/Department Details
Department of Plant Sciences/ Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
Session
2008
Subject
Biology
Number of Pages
241
Keywords (Extracted from title, table of contents and abstract of thesis)
ethnobotany, himalayan region, poonch vally, scleroderma cepa, melia azedrach, ficus palmata, morus alba, ulmus vilosa, dulbergia sissoo, pinus roxburghii, juglans regia, celtis australis, acacia modesta, abies pindrow, pinus wallichiana, zanthoxylum alatum, populus ciliata, ailanthus excelsa, buxus papilosa, quercus dilatata, quercus incana, cedrella toona, mentha sylvestricum, salix alba, dodonaea viscose

Abstract
Poonch valley an area of about 8500 hectares at an elevation ranging from 1750 meters to 2500 meters above sea level. Biodiversity and ethnobotanical study was conducted during a period of three years (April, 1999 to April, 2002).The result of initial site analysis showed that the soils were mostly acidic with low content of exchangeable cations. No significant difference in soil organic matters and phosphorus were observed between categories use in the analysis. The genera studied were classified into 3 categories according to 'the number of species. 25 plant communities were recorded in the study area on the basis of phytosociological parameters. Scleroderma cepa was recorded as endemic mushroom in the study area. This study concludes that this region has a total of 430 vascular plant species and 5 non-vascular plant species. The ethnobotanical studies indicated that inhabitants of Poonch Valley utilized 169 plant species for more than 30 domestic needs. The major usage included 68 medicinal plants, 35 fuel wood species, 35 fodder species, 24 vegetable and pot herbs, 10 veterinary medicinal plants, 24 fruit yielding plants, 14 spices and condiment species, 12 for construction and timber requirements, 13 ornamental species, 9 used as field fencing species, 13 furniture making species, and 6 used as mouth wash (maswak). Most of the plants are used for multiple purposes.

The multiple purpose plants included Melia azedrach, (7 uses), Ficus palmata, Morus alba, and Ulmus vilosa (6 uses), Dulbergia sissoo, Pinus roxburghii, Juglans regia, and Celtis australis (5 uses), Acacia modesta, Abies pindrow, Pinus wallichiana, Zanthoxylum alatum, Populus ciliata, Ailanthus excelsa and Buxus papilosa (4 uses each), while Quercus dilatata, Quercus incana, Cedrella toona, Mentha sylvestricum, Salix alba and Dodonaea viscose.

Other studies suggest that the indigenous knowledge related to medicinal plants uses comes from women age between 29-50 years, where as in this study the folk medicinal use comes from men. Result of this survey were conducted to see the source of indigenous knowledge , related to the medicinal uses of the plants revealed that 72 % of folk medicinal knowledge comes from people above the age of 50 years, while 28 % of it comes from people between age of 30 and 50. The survey also indicated that men especially old ones are more informative of traditional knowledge of medicinal plants than women in the area.

Moreover, it was also observed that about 45 % of the local population is dependent on medicinal plants for curing different ailments. It was also indicated that about 60 % of the home made drugs were used by peoples above the age of 50 years, 30 % by children below age of 15 years especially infants while remaining 10 % of the traditional medicines of plant origin are utilized by people between ages of I5-50 years.

The conservation of biological diversity requires all possible efforts and there is a need for holistic approach involving wild and cultivated plants, forest trees and their habitats. An immediate action is required at national level for developing a system for protected areas, so that the biological study continues to remain available for the benefit and welfare of the inhabitants of the area for all times to come. All the above parameters are discussed.

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3751.45 KB
S. No. Chapter Title of the Chapters Page Size (KB)
1 0 Contents
190.1 KB
2 1 Introduction
717.33 KB
  1.1 Justification For The Project 1
  1.2 Aims And Objectives Of The Study 2
  1.3 Study Area :A Historical Outline 3
  1.4 Plant Diversity 9
  1.5 Conservation Of Biodiversity 21
  1.6 Ethnobotany 28
  1.7 Conclusion 49
3 2 Methodology 51
217.45 KB
  2.1 Methodology Used For The Project 51
  2.2 Analysis 51
  2.3 Methods Of Soil Analysis 53
  2.4 Determination Of Degree Of Regularity 60
  2.5 Measurement Of Phytosociological Parameters 60
  2.6 Measurement Of Species Diversity 61
  2.7 Plant Conservation 63
  2.8 Ethnobotany 66
4 3 Results 68
2384.58 KB
  3.1 Soil Analysis 68
  3.2 Plant Diversity In Poonch Valley 71
  3.3 Results Of Plant Communities 99
  3.4 Conservation Of Biodiversity 111
  3.5 Ethnobotany Of Poonch Valley Of Azad Kashmir 120
5 4 Discussion 197
258.67 KB
  4.1 Edaphic Factors In Relation To Vegetation Communities 197
  4.2 Species Composition On The Basis Of Altitude And Topography 199
  4.3 Plant Communities In Poonch Valley 200
  4.4 Threats To The Flora Of Poonch Valley 201
  4.5 Biodiversity Conservation Process 202
  4.6 Endangered Flora Of Poonch Valley 202
  4.7 Impact Of Ethnobotany In Conservation Of Natural Resources 206
  4.8 Plant Collection And Trade Of Medicinal Plants 208
  4.9 Fuel Wood Consumption In Poonch Valley 209
  4.10 Morel Collection In Poonch Valley 211
  4.11 Role Of Ethnoveterinary Medicine 211
  4.12 Miscellaneous Uses Of Plants 211
  4.13 Conclusion And Recommendations 212
6 5 References 216
214.65 KB
7 6 Appendices 232
96.53 KB